Printmaking Techniques

ID Printmaking Tech Ingestion Hazard Inhalation Hazard Skin Contact Hazard Other Hazards Precautions

2 Pigments Hazard. w/chronic exposure Potential hazard. Chromate and cobalt cause irritation Getting pigments in cuts or sores Use ready-made inks; use glove box, respirator; follow good hygiene practices; wash work surfaces
3 Vehicles

Oil vehicles slightly hazardous, chronically Flammable and may spontaneously combust Don't use open flame; place oil-soaked rags in disposal cans or pails of water
4 Modifiers

5 Ink Reducers

6 Tack Reducers Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Benzene flammable
7 Stiffeners Not toxic Large amounts hazard. Irritant

8 Antiskinning Agents Moderately toxic/highly toxic Highly toxic (aerosols) Slightly irritating/slightly toxic
Avoid lead or manganese driers; take precautions against fire

10 Inking and Printing Hazard. w/accidental ingestion No hazard, unless old inks dry Hazard. if ink gets into sores or cuts Heavy rollers cause back problems Use water-based inks; avoid hand-spreading inks; use barrier cream; practice good hygiene techniques; safety guards
11 Cleanup Moderately toxic Moderately/Highly toxic Moderately toxic Solvents flammable, talc toxic by inhalation Get MSDS's; use safety razor blades to remove ink; use least toxic solvents; wear gloves; use exhaust fan; respirator; avoid talc

13 Drawing Materials
Solvents moderately toxic, except alcohol (slightly toxic) Lamp black moderately toxic, may cause cancer Airbrushing more hazardous Avoid skin contact w/lamp black and solvents; use ventilation; do airbrushing in spray booth; use respirator
14 Stone Processing
Rosin dust, talc, solvents Gum arabic and acid, can burn Some are carcinogenic; skin irritants Use prepared etches; don't use hydrofluoric acid; wear gloves, goggles, apron; add acid to water,not water to acid; neutralize acids
15 Stone Cleaning Highly toxic Not as serious a hazard Highly corrosive/toxic Phenol can be fatal DON'T USE phenol; wear gloves, goggles, protective apron
16 Metal Plate Processing
Dichromates highly toxic; lacquers hazard. Acids irritants; moderately toxic; phenol highly toxic Dichromates probable carcinogens; solvents flammable Avoid phenol, dichromates, gas, concentrated acids; wear gloves, goggles, apron; use exhaust hood, respirator, ventilation
17 Photolithography
Ammonia highly toxic; solvents highly toxic Moderately toxic, eye irritants; solvents highly toxic Carbon arc fumes highly toxic; uv radiation damaging Avoid ammonium dichromate; wear gloves, goggles; use exhaust hood, respirator; don't use carbon arcs; paint walls w/zinc oxide for protection against uv
18 INTAGLIO (Acid Etching)

19 Etching Grounds and Stop-Outs
Xylene highly toxic; rosin dust slightly toxic Xylene absorbed; solvents haz.; asphaltum slightly toxic Xylene flammable; alcohol slightly toxic; PAH's carcinogenic Store solvents in safety cans; use exhaust ventilation; practice good hygiene techniques; use lowest temperature on hot plates to avoid vaporization of PAH's
20 Aquatints
Rosin dust causes allergies; spray paints highly toxic
Rosin and asphaltum dusts explosive Wear respirator; make sure rosin box is sparkproof; wet-mop rosin dusts; use spray hood or respirator, or spray outdoors
21 Etching Process Acids corrosive, highly toxic Highly toxic chlorine gas, nitrogen dioxide haz. Acids corrosive; ferric chloride irritant Acids may be fatal; Reaction. can cause fires; edges can cut Use ferric chloride; store nitric acid & potassium chlorate away from others; wear gloves, goggles, apron; use ventilation; neutralize acids; don't induce vomiting; cover acid baths; use eyewash fountain
22 Photo etching Ether acetates moderately toxic; xylene highly toxic Ethyl acetates highly toxic; xylene highly toxic Ethyl acetates highly toxic; xylene moderately toxic Butyl cellosolve highly toxic, carbon arcs haz. Use presensitized plates; use local exhaust ventilation; wear respirator, gloves; with carbon arcs, use ventilation, wear welding goggles; paint walls with zinc oxide paint to prevent uv radiation reflection
23 INTAGLIO (Drypoint, Engraving, Mezzotint)
Metal dust irritating Cuts from metal Carpel tunnel syndrome; electrical shock Clamp plate to table to prevent slipping; hold tools properly; cut away from body; store tools in canvas holders, with sharp edges embedded in corks; wear respirator; keep tools sharp; rest wrists to avoid carpel tunnel

25 Woodcuts and Wood Engraving
Wood dusts moderately toxic Woods moderately toxic & skin irritants; tools can cut skin Tools can cause carpel tunnel syndrome Vacuum or mop all wood dust; wear hand creams protective against irritating woods; cut away from you, with hands behind tool; rest wrists to avoid carpel tunnel syndrome; use linoleum cutting instead
26 Linocuts
Solvents moderately toxic Tools less likely to cause cuts; caustic soda corrosive Heated wax and solvents flammable Cut away from you; heat linoleum with electric pad on low heat; wear gloves and goggles; wash hands; avoid open flames; do not let children use caustic soda

28 Stencils

Paper stencils are the least hazardous, since solvents are not used in their preparation; stencils for water-based inks need to be insoluble in water at room temperature; those for solvent-based inks must be insoluble in ink solvents
29 Resists and Blockouts Methyl alcohol moderately toxic Ethyl alcohol slightly toxic; methyl alcohol moderately toxic; lacquers highly toxic Ethyl alcohol slightly toxic; methyl alcohol moderately toxic; lacquers highly toxic Solvents flammable Water-soluble glues, wax, and frisket are least haz. materials; wear gloves, goggles; wash hands with water, not solvents; use ventilation, respirator; store solvents in closed containers and dispose of daily
30 Film Stencils
Adhering fluids moderately toxic; film removers highly toxic; Isopropyl alcohol slightly toxic Adhering fluids slightly toxic to moderately toxic; film removers toxic Isopropyl alcohol, adhering fluids, film removers flammable Use ventilation with adhering fluids and isopropyl alcohol; use adhering fluids instead of film removers to remove film; follow fire prevention rules
31 Photo Stencils
Ammonium dichromate irritating (probable carcinogen) Ammonium dichromate moderately toxic; diazo eye irritants Carbon arcs highly haz; uv light haz. Wear gloves, goggles; use diazo photemulsions or presensitized emulsions; DO NOT USE carbon arcs; use photoflood or sunlamp instead
32 Screen Printing Inks Mineral spirits moderately toxic; modifiers moderately toxic Mineral spirits moderately toxic; toluene highly toxic; vinyl inks highly toxic Mineral spirits moderately toxic; epoxy inks irritating; retarders moderately toxic Glycol ethers more haz. than propylene/ethylene Use MSDS's; use water-based screen printing inks; use local exhaust ventilation; obey fire prevention rules; empty waste cans daily
33 Printing and Drying
Solvents highly haz.; gases/fumes irritating

Use slot exhaust hood; wear respirator; dry prints in specially ventilated area; use dilution ventilation for postprint curing of fabrics; no ventilation needed for water-based inks
34 Cleanup
Solvent washups highly toxic; mineral spirits moderately toxic; bleach highly toxic Solvents moderately toxic; mineral spirits moderately toxic; bleach moderately toxic Solvents are fire hazards Clean ink off screen before it dries; use acetone, odorless mineral spirits, or lithotine instead of commercial washups; use ventilation and respirator; wear gloves, goggles; prevent fire; dispose of solvent-soaked rags

36 Collagraphs
Organic solvent glues haz.; sanding dusts irritating Organic solvent glues haz. Aerosol spray fixative haz. Avoid more toxic glues; wear gloves; use adequate ventilation; use water-based glues instead of solvent-based; wear dust mask; brush on fixatives, instead of spraying; spray outside, with respirator
37 Plastic Prints Haz. of accidental ingestion of ink
Haz. of ink in cuts and sores
Use water-based inks; don't wipe plates with hands; use barrier hand cream; use good hygiene techniques; use safety guards
38 Monoprints Haz. of accidental ingestion of ink
Haz. of ink in cuts and sores
Use water-based inks; don't wipe plates with hands; use barrier hand cream; use good hygiene techniques; use safety guards