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Photography Chemicals

ID Photo Chemicals Other Names Use Ingestion Haz Inhalation Haz Skin Contact Haz Other Hazards
1 Acetic Acid, Glacial
Stop bath Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic Corrosive and causes severe burns; can be fatal; combustible (Threshold Limit Value [TLV] 10 ppm
2 Alum Potassium aluminum sulfate Hardener Slightly toxic to moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic
3 Amidol (see Diaminophenol hydrochloride)





4 Aminophenol
Developer Highly toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Prolonged contact irritating; may cause kidney damage, cyanosis (difficulty breathing), bronchial asthma
5 Ammonium Alum (See Alum) Ammonium aluminum sulfate




6 Ammonium Bromide
Bleach bath Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Inhalation/ingestion causes depression, emaciation, vertigo, confusion, mental deterioration; vomiting
7 Ammonium Dichromate (See Potassium dichromate)





8 Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonia water Intensification, toning, hypo elimination Moderately toxic to highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 25 ppm; can cause burns; mixing w/alkalis forms ammonia gas; mixing w/chlorine bleach forms poison gas
9 Ammonium Persulfate
Reducing Solutions Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Strong oxidizing agent; flammable; emit highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas
10 Ammonium Thiocyanate (see Potassium thiocyanate)





11 Ammonium Thiosulfate (see Sodium thiosulfate)





12 p-Benzoquinone Para-benzoquinone, quinone Holography bleach Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 0.1 ppm; Causes severe skin/eye irritation; high exposure causes pneumonia; overexposure can cause brain damage; combustible solid
13 Bleach, household 5% sodium hypochlorite solution Hypo eliminator Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Repeated exposure can cause dermatitis; heating releases highly toxic chlorine gas; addition of ammonia forms highly poisonous gas
14 Borax Sodium tetraborate, sodium metaborate, sodium pyroborate Developing bath Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic TLV 1-5 mg/m3; alkaline powder; absorption causes nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, skin rash
15 Boric acid
Buffer Moderately toxic to highly toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Acidic powder; absorption causes nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, skin rash
16 Bromine
Holography bleach Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 0.1 ppm; corrosive; can cause severe burns; absorbed through skin; oxidizing agent; poisonous gases produced in fires
17 Catechin Catechol, pyrocatechol, o-dihydroxybenzene Developer Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 5 ppm (skin); absorbed through skin; inhalation causes cyanosis, anemia, convulsions, vomiting, liver & kidney damage; DON'T USE
18 Chlorquinol Chlorhydroquinone Developer Highly toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Inhalation causes cyanosis, anemia, convulsions, vomiting, liver & kidney damage; DON'T USE
19 Chrome Alum (see Potassium chrome alum)





20 Diaminophenol Hydrochloride Hydroxy-p-phenylenediamine hydrochloride Developer Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic May be absorbed through skin; skin contact causes severe irritation; causes bronchial asthma, gastritis, vertigo, tremors, coma; DON'T USE
21 Diethanolamine
Color developing baths Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic TLV 3 ppm; alkaline; irritating to eyes/respiratory system; may cause mild liver damage
22 Diethyl-p-Phenylene Diamine (see p-phenylene diamine)





23 Dimethyl-p-Phenylene Diamine (see p-phenylene diamine)





24 Disodium Phosphate
Color bleach bath Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic May cause irritation to skin and eyes
25 Ethoxydiglycol Diethylene glycol ethyl ether, 2-(2- ethoxyethyl) ethanol, carbitol Color processing solvent Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Probable human development toxicant; causes irritation; absorbed through skin; similar to ethylene glycol; not volatile unless heated
26 Ethylene Diamine
Color developing baths Moderately toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 10 ppm; corrosive to skin and eyes; may be absorbed through skin; liver and kidney damage, asthma can occur
27 Ethylenediamine- tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and Salts
Color developing baths, holography Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic EDTA and its salts chelate metal ions, including calcium; sodium salts cause muscular spasms
28 Ethylene Glycol Glycol, 1,2-ethanediol Color developing baths Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Moderately toxic TLV-C 50 ppm; Ingestion is most serious problem; 3 ounces can be fatal in adults; affects kidneys, liver, central nervous system; low volatility
29 Farmer's Reducer (see Potassium ferricyanide)





30 Ferric alum (see alum) Ferric ammonium sulfate Toning solution



31 Ferric Ammonium Citrate
Cyanotype Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic TLV 1 mg/m3; Soluble iron salts slightly irritating; can cause poisoning if ingested in large amounts (especially by children)
32 Ferric Oxalate (see Potassium oxalate)





33 Formaldehyde Formalin Hardener, stabilizer Moderately toxic to highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV-C 0.3 ppm; probable carcinogen, mutagen; irritant; poisonous by ingestion; may cause asthma, allergic reactions
34 Freon 11 and 12 Dichlorofluorometh-ane, trichlorofluoro-methane Film cleaner Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic TLV 1000 ppm; may cause respiratory irritation, narcosis, irregular heart rhythms; heating produces highly poisonous gases; damages ozone layer
35 Glycin P-hydroxyphenyl aminoacetic acid Developer Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Skin contact may cause irritation, allergies; inhalation/ingestion may cause anemia, cyanosis, difficulty breathing, nausea, dizziness
36 Gold Chloride
Toner Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Can cause severe skin/respiratory allergies; can cause anemia, liver, kidney, nervous system damage
37 Hydrobromic Acid, Dilute
Holography, color bleach Highly toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic TLV 3 ppm; concentrated acid extremely corrosive; may cause skin, eye irritation; inhalation may cause lung irritation, possible chronic bronchitis
38 Hydrochloric Acid
Acid Highly toxic Moderately toxic Highly toxic TLV-C 7.5 mg/m3; concentrated acid highly corrosive; may cause skin/eye, lung irritation; may cause chronic bronchitis
39 Hydrogen Peroxide 3 1/2% Hypo eliminator Slightly toxic Not significantly toxic Slightly toxic Ingestion or repeated skin contact may cause slight irritation
40 Hydroquinone
Developer Highly toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic TLV 2 mg/m3, NIOSH C 2 mg/m3; probable mutagen; eye injury may result; may cause ringing in ears, nausea, dizziness, delirium, coma
41 Hydroxylamine Sulfate
Color neutralizing bath Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Probable human development toxicant; may cause irritation, allergies, anemia, cyanosis, convulsions, coma; causes birth defects in rats
42 Hypo (see Sodium thiosulfate)





43 Iodine
Reducing agent Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV-C 0.1 ppm; may cause hypersensitivity reaction & burns; heating produces highly toxic fumes; ingestion may be fatal because of corrosivity
44 Lead oxalate See also potassium oxalate Platinum printing Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic PEL 0.05 mg/m3; can cause inorganic lead poisoning; causes weakening, anemia, headaches, irritability, possible birth defects; corrosive
45 Liver of Sulfur (See Potassium sulfide)





46 Mercuric Chloride
Intensifier, platinum toner Extremely toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.05 mg/m3 (skin); corrosive; may cause mercury poison.; metallic taste, salivation, swelling of gums, vomiting, bloody diarrhea; DON'T USE
47 Mercuric Iodide (see Mercuric Chloride)





48 Methyl Chloroform (see 1,1,1,-trichloro- ethane)





49 Metol (see Monomethyl p-aminophenol sulfate)





50 Monoethanolamine Ethanolamine, 2-aminoethanol Color developing bath Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic TLV 3 ppm; alkaline; irritating to eyes, respiratory system; may cause lethargy, mild liver/kidney damage
51 Monomethyl p-Aminophenol Sulfate
Developer Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Skin contact may cause severe skin irritation, allergies; inhalation/ingestion may cause anemia, cyanosis, difficulty breathing, dizziness, nausea
52 O-Phenylene Diamine (See P-phenylene Diamine)





53 Oxalic Acid
Toning solution, platinum printing Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 1 mg/m3; causes severe corrosivity, respiratory irritation, allergies, shock, collapse, possible convulsions, death; may be severe kidney damage
54 Phenidone 1-phenyl-3-pyrazo-lidone Developer Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Least toxic developer by skin contact; haz. by inhalation or ingestion similar to those for other developers
55 P-Phenylene Diamine Para-phenylenediamine Developer Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.1 mg/m3 (skin); may cause severe allergies; may be absorbed through skin; may cause vertigo, gastritis, liver/spleen damage; AVOID if possible
56 Phosphoric Acid
Platinum printing Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 1 mg/m3; highly corrosive; ingestion can cause severe stomach damage and may be fatal; may cause irritant dermatitis; diluted acid less haz.
57 Platinum Chloride
Toner, Platinum printing Unknown Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.002 mg/m3; causes severe allergies, asthma; some lung scarring/ emphysema may occur; people w/red/light hair, most susceptible
58 Potassium Bromide (see Ammonium bromide)
Developing & intensifying baths



59 Potassium Chlorate
Platinum printing Highly toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Strong oxidizing agent; flammable in contact w/solvents; irritant; causes gastritis, delayed kidney damage
60 Potassium Chlorochromate
Intensifier Moderately toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Probable carcinogen; may cause irritation, ulceration, allergies, eye burns; gastroenteritis, vertigo, muscle cramps, kidney damage; heating releases highly toxic chlorine gas
61 Potassium Chloroplatinite (see Platinum chloride)





62 Potassium Chrome Alum Chrome Alum, Chromium potassium sulfate Hardener Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.3 mg/m3; possible carcinogen; skin, eye, respiratory irritant
63 Potassium Cyanide
Reducer Extremely toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 5 mg/m3; may be absorbed through skin; can cause chemical asphyxia; adding acid forms hydrogen cyanide gas; DON'T USE
64 Potassium Dichromate Potassium bichromate Intensifier Extremely toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic TLV 0.05 mg/m3, NIOSH 0.001 mg/m3; probable carcinogen; corrosive; strong oxidizer; can cause cancer, circulatory collapse, kidney damage; AVOID if possible
65 Potassium Ferricyanide Farmer's Reducer Reducer, cyanotype Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Heating, treating w/acid, exposing to uv light can cause release of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas
66 Potassium Iodide
Holography Moderately toxic Unknown Not significant Known human teratogen; may cause "iodism", w/symptoms of salivation, sneezing, inflammation of nasal passages, headache, fever, bronchitis, skin rashes
67 Potassium Oxalate
Platinum printing Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Corrosive to skin, eyes, nose, throat; ingestion causes intense damage to mouth, esophagus, stomach, kidney damage; may be fatal by ingestion
68 Potassium Permanganate
Reducer, hypo eliminator Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic Concentrated solutions & solids are highly corrosive to skin, eyes, mouth, stomach; dilute solutions are mildly irritating
69 Potassium Persulfate (see Ammonium persulfate)





70 Potassium Sulfide Liver of sulfur Toner Extremely toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Skin contact causes skin softening & irritation; dust causes irritation; ingestion may cause hydrogen sulfide poisoning; mixing w/acid causes highly toxic hydrogen sulfide gas
71 Potassium Thiocyanate
Color developing bath Highly toxic Slightly toxic Not significantly toxic Ingestion causes vomiting, delirium, convulsions; poisoning similar to bromide poisoning; heating/treating w/acid forms extremely toxic hydrogen cyanide gas
72 Pyrogallic Acid Pyrogallol, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene Developer Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic May be absorbed through skin; inhalation causes severe poisoning w/cyanosis, anemia, convulsions, vomiting, liver & kidney damage; can be fatal; DON'T USE
73 Selenium Oxide Selenium dioxide Toner Highly toxic to extremely toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.2 mg/m3; may be absorbed through skin; causes irritation; similar to arsenic poisoning; treatment w/acid forms extremely toxic hydrogen selenide gas
74 Silver Nitrate
Test for hypo, Van Dyke process Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 0.01 mg/m3; corrosive to skin, eyes, mucous membranes; may cause blindness, gastroenteritis, shock, vertigo, coma, convulsions
75 Sodium Bisulfite
Fixing bath Highly toxic to extremely toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic TLV 5 mg/m3; aqueous solution acidic; adding acid forms sulfur dioxide gas
76 Sodium Carbonate (see Sodium hydroxide) Soda ash




77 Sodium Formaldehyde Bisulfite
Developing solution Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Not irritating like formaldehyde; allergies are rare
78 Sodium Hydroxide Caustic soda Developing bath Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV-C 2 mg/m3; highly corrosive; ingestion can cause damage to mouth, esophagus, & can be fatal; inhalation causes chemical pneumonia; dilute alkaline more corrosive
79 Sodium Nitrate
Color bleach bath Moderately toxic Not significantly toxic Not significantly toxic May be converted by intestinal bacteria into more toxic nitrites if ingested; can result in anemia, cyanosis; strong oxidizer
80 Sodium Sulfide (see Potassium Sulfide)





81 Sodium Sulfite
Preservative Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Not significantly toxic Causes irritation; causes colic, diarrhea, circulatory disturbance, central nervous system depression; heating/ treating w/acid forms highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas
82 Sodium Thiocyanate (see Potassium thiocyanate)





83 Sodium Thiosulfate Hypo Fixer Slightly toxic Highly toxic Not significantly toxic Ingestion of large amounts causes purging; old solutions, or those treated w/acid, or heated, release highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas
84 Succinaldehyde
Color prehardener Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Skin and eye irritant; not very volatile, so inhalation less of a risk
85 Sulfamic Acid
Color bleach Highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Corrosive to skin, eyes, respiratory system, intestinal system; heating/adding acid forms highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas
86 Sulfuric Acid Oleum Cleaning Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic TLV 1 mg/m3; concentrate is corrosive to skin, eyes, respiratory system, stomach; ingestion can be fatal; dilute less haz.; heating releases highly toxic sulfur oxide gases
87 Tertiary-Butylamine Borate
Color developing bath Highly toxic Highly toxic Highly toxic May cause skin irritation and be absorbed through skin; may cause nervous system damage
88 Thiourea Thiocarbamide Toning solution Moderately toxic to highly toxic Highly toxic Slightly toxic Probable carcinogen and mutagen; thiourea causes cancer in rats
89 para-Toluenesulfonic Acid
Color bleaching Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Corrosive; skin, eye, respiratory irritant; decomposes w/heat or acid to form sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide
90 1,1,1,-Trichloroethane Methyl chloroform Film cleaner Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic TLV 350 ppm; NIOSH 350 ppm; causes irritation, narcosis, heart arrhythmias, death; chronic exposure may cause liver damage
91 Triethanolamine
Color developing bath, holography Slightly toxic Highly toxic Slightly toxic TLV 0.5 ppm; probable human carcinogen; alkaline; may cause skin reaction; absorbed through skin; irritating to skin, eyes, respiratory system; may cause mild liver damage
92 Trisodium Phosphate (see Sodium hydroxide)
Color developing bath



93 Uranium Nitrate
Toner Moderately toxic Highly toxic Slightly toxic TLV 0.05 mg/m3; soluble uranium compounds are poorly absorbed, but can cause severe kidney damage/ failure; DO NOT USE