2014 Undergraduate Research

Identifying anaerobic lactate threshold by visual inspection: A study of validity and reliability

Laura C Bailey

Laura C Bailly
Biology, Exercise Science and Sport Study, NATS

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Purpose: To examine the inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion related validity of the visual inspection method of identifying anaerobic lactate threshold (T2). Methods: Existing blood lactate data from 14 Division III female cross country runners were used for this study. Runners completed a graded treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with blood lactate measurements at the end of each 2-min stage. Each subject's blood lactate and treadmill velocity data were plotted in Excel. Using scatterplot graphs, two expert raters independently created trend lines, representing each subject's lactate curve. Using the visual inspection method, raters independently identified each subject's LT2, defined as the point at which blood lactate began to rise in a rapid, non-linear fashion. Reference LT2 values were identified, using the Dmax method, by objectively measuring the point on each subject's lactate curve that produced maximal perpendicular distance from a line connecting the two ends of the curve. Intraclass correlation coefficient analysis (ICC 3,1) was used to examine inter-rater reliability and a Pearson product-moment correlation was used to examine concurrent criterion related validity. Results: Inter-rater reliability of the visual inspection method of identifying LT2 was judged to be fair (ICC = .730, 95% CI = -.174 - .927). The validity coefficients for Rater 1 (r = .851; P ≤ .001) and Rater 2 (r = .742; P = .002) in identifying LT2 were judged to be excellent and very good, respectively. Conclusion: Visual inspection may be a valid method of identifying of LT2. Future research should look to confirm this finding and compare the visual inspection method to other established methods. The fair inter-rater reliability and large confidence interval associated with the visual inspection method suggest caution should be used when comparing LT2 values derived from multiple raters.

Monitoring dance performance intensity using rate of perceived exertion: A criterion validity study

Maren Iverson

Maren E Iverson
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Jospeh, MN

Purpose: To examine the strength of the relationship between rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological measures of exercise intensity, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) concentration. Methods: The 14 Division III female dance team members who volunteered to participate in the study consumed a standardized meal containing 1.5 g carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight two hours prior to testing. The subjects' urine was tested using Accutest URS Hydration Strips to ensure normal hydration (specific gravity ≤ 1.020). Subjects were familiarized with Borg's CR-10 overall exertion RPE scale prior to testing. The dance test protocol was conducted in the College of St. Benedict' aerobics studio and consisted of performing four progressively longer segments of the dancers' two minute competitive jazz dance routine (0 to 30 s, 0 to 60 s, 0 to 90 s, and 0 to 120 s). Subjects rested between dance segments until BLa concentrations returned to baseline. HR, BLa, and RPE were assessed immediately upon completion of each dance segment. Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between RPE, HR, and BLa concentrations. Results: Significant positive relationships were found between RPE (4.5 ±1.8) and BLa concentrations (6.7 mmol/L ±2.6) [r(56) = 0.634, P < .001] and between RPE and HR (183.4 bpm ± 0.7) [r(56) = 0.480, P < .001] during the dance performance. Conclusion: Because of the significant and relatively strong correlations between RPE and both HR and BLa concentrations, RPE appears to be a valid method of monitoring exercise intensity during a competitive dance team practice and performance.

Physiological demands of dance: A study of competitive DIII collegiate dancers

Tori M Grootwassink

Tori M Grootwassink, Maren E Iverson
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Jospeh, MN

Purpose: To better understand the physiological demand of a collegiate dance team performance and inform evidence based exercise program design for dancers. Methods: Fourteen Division III female dance team members participated in the study. A graded lactate treadmill test was completed to determine anaerobic lactate threshold for each subject. The dance test protocol consisted of performing four progressively longer segments of the dancers' two minute competitive jazz dance routine (0 to 30 s, 0 to 60 s, 0 to 90 s, and 0 to 120 s). Subjects rested between dance segments until blood lactate (BLa) concentrations returned to baseline. Heart rate (HR), BLa, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately upon completion of each dance segment. A descriptive analysis was used to characterize the subjects' physiological response to the dance routine performance. Results: There was a progressive increase in mean RPE, BLa, and HR from 30 s (2.5 ±, 0.8, 3.7 ± 1.0 mM, 176 ± 8.7 bpm) to 60 s (3.7 ± 0.8, 5.9 ± 1.2 mM, 185.7 ± 5.4 bmp) to 90 s (5.5 ± 1.2, 8.4 ± 2.1 mM, 187 ± 10.6 bpm) into the dance performance. At 120 s, mean HR decreased slightly [185 ± 10.0 bpm], while BLa and RPE continued to increase [8.7 ± 1.9 mM, 6.4 ± 1.3]. Six subjects reached anaerobic lactate threshold by 60 s, and all subjects reached anaerobic lactate threshold by 90 s. Conclusion: Competitive collegiate dance is a highly anaerobic activity as indicated by the rapid rise in BLa above anaerobic lactate threshold. Furthermore, dancers must maintain high intensity dance activity for 30-60 s after reaching anaerobic lactate threshold. These findings indicate that exercise programs designed for dancers should emphasize development of the anaerobic energy systems and enhance blood lactate clearance.

Validity and reliability of the pro-agility test for assessing ACL injury risk

Samantha Imholte

Samantha R Imholte
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) was designed to assess the biomechanics of jump-landing techniques that are associated with risk of knee injury. Common movement patterns of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are prevalent in cutting movements found in the pro-agility test. The reliability and validity of the pro-agility test in assessing injury risk is unknown. Purpose: To test the reliability and validity of the pro-agility test in assessing compensatory movement patterns associated with risk of knee injury. Methods: Thirty Division III female agility athletes (volleyball n = 7, basketball n = 9, soccer n = 14) performed three box drop vertical jump test trials (BDVJ) from a 30cm box and two trials of the pro-agility test. All BDVJ trials were videotaped and the trial with the greatest vertical displacement was analyzed. LESS scores were calculated for the right leg and the LESS injury risk classifications were determined. Subjects performed two trials of the pro-agility test. All trials were videotaped and the right leg analyzed for movement patterns characteristic of ACL injury risk. Participants completed a health history survey regarding serious musculoskeletal injuries occurring in the past four years. Statistical analysis: Paired samples t-tests compared the two trials of the right leg extremity pro-agility injury risk classifications. A Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to find the relationship between LESS and pro-agility scores. Results: No significant difference was found between the two pro-agility trials (Trial 1 M = 2.27, SD = .785, Trial 2 M = 2.33, SD = .802). LESS and pro-agility risk classifications were not related (r(30) = .189, p = .381). Conclusion: The pro-agility test has high test-retest reliability in assessing compensatory movements. Compared to the LESS assessment, the pro-agility scoring criterion used in the current study is not a valid test of knee injury risk assessment.

Dynamic Postural Stability Index: Test-Retest Reliability When Landing from Three Types of Jumps

Janae Myers & Isabel Sim-Campos

Janae L Myers, Isabel E Sim-Campos, Maren E Iverson
Exercise Science and Sport Study, NATS

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Purpose: To help establish the test-retest reliability of the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI), a relatively new clinical measure of dynamic postural stability. Methods: Forty-two healthy college students (19 men and 23 women) active in club or intramural change of direction sports participated in the study. Subjects completed three types of jumps (forward, lateral, and 90 degree mid-air rotational jump) on three occasions with 24- to 48- hours between test sessions. With hands on hips, subjects performed the three jumps, each equivalent to 50% of maximum jump distance, landing on the right lower extremity. Subjects were instructed to land onto the center of an AccuPower® force platform, stabilize as quickly as possible, and balance for three seconds. Ground reaction forces in the x-, y-, and z-directions were sampled at 400 Hz. Ground reaction forces were used to calculate the DPSI associated with landing from each of the three jumps performed on the three occasions (a total of nine jumps). Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) formula. Results: Test-retest reliability of the DPSI was judged to be good when landing from a forward jump (ICC = .807, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .678-.890), fair when landing from a rotational jump (ICC = .753, 95% CI = .588 -.859), and poor when landing from a lateral jump (ICC = .085, 95% CI = -.531-.478). Conclusion: The test-retest reliability of the DPSI is dependent on the type of jump performed prior to landing. Consistent with previous research, the DPSI was found to be a reliable measure of dynamic postural stability when the jump prior to landing emphasized anterior and vertical body movement. However, the current study suggests the test-retest reliability of the DPSI is reduced when a 90 degree mid-air rotation is performed prior to landing and is severely reduced when a lateral jump, challenging frontal plane stability, is performed prior to landing.

A Periodized, 52-Week Training Program for a Women's Ice Hockey Team

Katie Schwab

Katie J Schwab
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

The job of a strength and conditioning professional is to improve athletic performance. A periodized training program can enhance athletic performance while minimizing the risk of injuries. Designing training programs to maximize performance for ice hockey players can be difficult because ice hockey is one of the most physically demanding sports. All of the components of fitness are important in hockey: muscle endurance, strength, and power, and high oxidative and glycolytic capacities. The purpose of this project was to examine the muscular and cardiovascular demands of a women's ice hockey team and design a 52-week, periodized training program to facilitate advantageous physiological adaptations. A review of the literature was conducted prior to the program design to determine the common muscular and cardiovascular demands. Research on women's hockey is limited so men's hockey was analyzed when necessary. A needs analysis summarized the findings from the literature. The primary muscle groups for skating include: hip abductors and adductors, gluteus maximus and minimus, the quadriceps and the hamstrings. Explosive muscular power is the most important aspect for hockey performance, which requires a solid strength base. Muscular endurance is also necessary to maintain peak performance for an entire game. The primary energy systems used on-ice are the ATP-CP and the glycolytic systems. The oxidative system must also be trained to facilitate rapid recovery between on-ice shifts. A 52-week, periodized training program was created to address the muscular and cardiovascular needs. The program is organized into three primary phases: preparation, competition, and transition. The mesocycles within the preparatory sub-phases gradually decrease in volume and increase in intensity and build off of the adaptations acquired in previous mesocycles. The emphasis during the competition phase is to maintain early strength and power gains. After peaking for the MIAC championships, a transition phase follows where no organized exercise is prescribed to facilitate full recovery. All training aspects of this periodized program were fully researched to ensure specific adaptations within the mesocycles.

The Effects of Coach-Administered Feedback on Physical Performance in Collegiate Female Athletes

Kaitlyn Rolando

Kaitlyn M Rolando
Exercise Science and Sport Study, Psychology

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Athletes experience a variety of coaching behaviors directed at the athlete personally, at a teammate, or at the team as a whole. Interactions and communicative acts between coaches and athletes affect psychological and emotional well-being, motivation, and sport persistence of athletes. The purpose of this study was to better understand how the relationship between coach and athlete affects performance. The current study examined whether coach-administered positive feedback and coaching presence (present but not administering feedback and not present) during a physical test would impact performance. Ten, Division III female ice hockey players participated in the study. Each participant completed three anaerobic treadmill tests at 7mph with a 20% grade while being administered one of three treatments: 1) coach providing positive feedback, 2) coach present but not providing feedback, 3) coach not present. Testing was completed over a three-week time period, each treatment separated by one week. A one-way ANOVA revealed no significant difference in performance outcomes between feedback treatments (F(3,11)=1.668, p>0.05). Inconsistencies in the pre-test screening, as well as the testing procedure, may have contributed to statistically insignificant results. Overall, coach feedback or presence during a treadmill test did not affect performance in Division III female ice hockey players.

Relationship between Pain Perception and Anaerobic Treadmill Test Performance

Patrick Miles

Patrick J Miles
Exercise Science and Sport Study, Psychology

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Exercise induced pain may be a contributing factor in an athlete's decision to discontinue performing high intensity exercise. To examine the relationship between pain perception and anaerobic treadmill test performance, 11 male athletes participated in two experimental tasks. First, participants performed a cold pressor test where cold water (1°C) was circulated around their submerged hand. Pain tolerance was measured by the amount of time the participant's hand was submerged. Next, the participants performed a Cunningham and Faulkner Anaerobic treadmill test where they were instructed to run until exhaustion at 7 mph and a 20% incline. Their anaerobic performance was measured by the time spent on the treadmill. No statistically significant correlation was observed between pain tolerance and anaerobic performance (r=.601, p=.051). The decision to quit exercising was not likely due to the pain of exercise, but a physiological or psychological inability to produce force.

Adequacy of Exergames: Is Just Dance an Effective Exercise?

Sara Buermann

Sara R Buermann
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of interactive video games as a regular form of exercise using blood lactate, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and oxygen consumption (VO2). Seven recreationally active female students participated in two testing sessions each. During the first session, a VO2 peak treadmill test was performed followed by a 3-stage phasic treadmill protocol. The subjects were then allotted a familiarization period with the Wii Just Dance equipment. During the second testing session, the subject exercised for 20 minutes on the Wii Just Dance program. Songs were pre-selected by the researcher and included approximately 50% medium-level difficulty songs and 50% hard-level. Blood lactate, HR, RPE, and VO2 measurements were taken between each song. HR, RPE, blood lactate and VO2 measurements from the Just Dance trial were compared to the maximal measurements obtained during the first testing session to determine the level of intensity of Just Dance exercise. Blood lactate during the Just Dance trial was analyzed separately based on medium (2.08 ± .50 mmol/dl) and hard difficulty levels (2.73 ± 1.52 mmol/dl). Average HR during the Just Dance trial was similarly analyzed based on medium (136.1 ± 14.94 bpm) and hard difficulty levels (156.14 ±15.16 bpm). Average VO2 during the Just Dance Trial was also evaluated after separating medium (17.49 ±2.94 ml/kg/min) and hard (24.78 ±1.86 ml/kg/min) level data. The average percentage of heart rate maximum reached by subjects was 72.22% (SD = 7.65) during medium difficulty and 82.86% (SD = 7.56) during hard level intensity. The average percentage of VO2 reserve during medium difficulty Just Dance was 47.63% (SD = 8.37) while average VO2 reserve during hard level Just dance was 67.39% (SD = 6.95). One subject's blood lactate was below baseline during the medium level dances, four subjects' blood lactate was elevated from baseline but below lactate threshold (LT) and two subjects' were at or slightly above LT. During hard level Just Dance activity, four subjects' blood lactate was above baseline but below LT and three subjects' blood lactate was at or exceeded LT. Just Dance does qualify as at least a moderate intensity exercise compared to the guidelines set by the American College of Sports Medicine. Based on the findings, exergames can be considered at least moderate intensity exercise and may provide an alternative to gym-based exercise.

Investigation of the relationship between lipid profile and aerobic exercise

Daniel Siers

Daniel M Siers
Biology, Exercise Science and Sport Study, Nutrition

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Previous research has demonstrated a positive correlation between aerobic exercise (AE) and HDL, or good cholesterol, while evidence has been mixed regarding the relationship between AE and LDL. Purpose: The first goal is to determine the relationships between AE of both high intensity (HI, 90 minutes per week) and low intensity (LI, 120 minutes per week), and measures of lipid profile such as HDL and LDL. The second goal is to determine the relationship between HDL, LDL, and the frequency, intensity, and duration of AE. Methods: 112 Nutrition 125 students completed a 3 day diet log, aerobic exercise survey, and had their fasting blood glucose and lipid levels assessed. All participants were young, relatively healthy college students with no health conditions or medications which would affect lipid profile. Results: No significant relationship between AE and HDL was observed. A weak negative correlation was found between LI AE and LDL (p = .03; r = -.295), and a weak negative correlation was found between intensity of AE and LDL (p = .019; r = -.221). Total kilocalorie consumption (TE) also correlated to increased TG levels despite controls for saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and carbohydrate consumption (p = .048; r = .190), but the possibly significant effects of obesity were not considered. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study AE is weakly and negatively correlated with LDL and is not associated with HDL or other lipid profile measurements. This result is surprising and contrary to established literature trends. The AE correlations may have been influenced by the subject population, healthy college students, who are different from participants used in previous research concerning AE and blood lipids who commonly have multiple CVD risk factors. More research must be completed to understand the relationship between TG and TE, which may affect CVD risk, particularly due to the confounding effect of obesity which was not controlled for in the present study.

Decision Fatigue and Exercise

Ryan Brutger

Ryan L Brutger
Exercise Science and Sport Study

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Decision fatigue is caused by successive and/or difficult decision-making. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise attenuates decision fatigue more so than rest. The current study examined the potential negative effects of decision fatigue on self-control, one of the manifestations of decision fatigue, and mood. Fourteen females age 18-22 (M=20.36, SD=1.11) participated in the study; each subject completed two trials. Upon arrival, the participants worked on one packet of math problems and completed one Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The subjects then completed a decision fatigue protocol, another round of math problems and another PANAS. They then performed either 20 minutes of exercise or 20 minutes of rest, followed by a final set of math problems and another PANAS. Math packets served as a measure of self-control, and the PANAS served as a measure of mood. Time spent on math problems and accuracy of problems was measured, while the PANAS measured positive and negative affect. Treatment had no effect over time for self-control (F (1.4, 5.9) = .601; p > .05), accuracy (F (1.9, 3.2) = .614; p > .05), or negative affect (F (1.6, 4.4) = .196; p > .05). The exercise treatment resulted in significant positive affect (F (1.3, 127.4) = .01; p < .05) compared to the rest treatment. These findings suggest that, while exercise does not attenuate decision fatigue more so than rest, it does elicit a perceivable, positive change in psychological state that is absent after rest.

The Effects of Saddle Height on Power Output in Male Cyclists

Elizabeth Camber

Elizabeth J Camber
Exercise Science and Sport Study, NATS

Poster presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at the College of Saint Benedict, St. Joseph, MN

Small variations in bicycle saddle height impact injury prevention, anaerobic power output, economy, gross efficiency, and lower limb kinematics. The Hamley method of setting saddle height is the best for maximizing power, and the Holmes method minimizes risk of injury. The two methods often do not yield saddle heights that overlap. Researchers have examined how saddle height affects anaerobic power production, but little work has examined aerobic power production. Since most cycling races rely on aerobic power, there is a need to examine how aerobic power is affected by adjusting saddle height. This study will investigate saddle heights set utilizing the Holmes method, in which saddle height is set such that the knee has 25° to 35° of flexion, and determine which saddle heights, within the range recommended for injury prevention, yield maximal power output. Participants will complete a standardized warm up consisting of dynamic warm-up exercises followed by 5 minutes of biking at a cadence lower than 50 rpm. At each of three test sessions, participants will perform one 2-mile time trial at a set cadence on a stationary bike at one of the three determined saddle heights. The order in which the participants ride at the three saddle heights will be randomly assigned. Participants will control the resistance in order to maintain a cadence of 90 rpm. Heart rate, power output, resistance, and cadence will be recorded throughout the trials. I hypothesize that use of a 25° knee angle will produce maximal power output.

Frozen Ethics: The Struggle for Perspective in Hockey Crazed Minnesota

Robbie Stocker

Robert M Stocker
Exercise Science and Sport Study, Experiential Learning & Community Engagement, Service-Learning

Poster Presented at the 2014 Scholarship and Creativity Day at Saint John's University, Collegeville, MN

This semester I volunteer coached a youth hockey team in Saint Cloud. I observed the behaviors of players, parents, coaches, and referees throughout the state of Minnesota. I will present my findings through an examination of these key areas: · what is fair · who decides what is fair · what is cheating, is it acceptable sometimes · what is fun, who decides if an activity is fun · what is the role of authority figures · what are you learning about yourself · what gender dynamics come into play in sports? · How does sports bridge barriers between people who are different I'll wrap up my presentation with a discussion of course concepts by applying varying ethical perspectives that were used throughout this volunteering.


Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Anaerobic Performance in Female Collegiate Basketball Players


Anna Krieger

Poster presented at the Northland Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine, March 28, 2014

 Professional athletes with adequate vitamin D status jumped higher and sprinted faster than those with insufficient status [<50nmol/L] (Close, 2012). The incidence of deficiency varies throughout the year, with rates increasing from 12% in the fall to 63% in the winter (Halliday 2011). This seasonal dip may adversely affect skeletal muscle function and performance. PURPOSE: To evaluate serum vitamin D [25(OH)D3] status and anaerobic performance in collegiate female basketball players and verify whether 2000 IU/daily vitamin D3 is sufficient to maintain optimal 25(OH)D3 levels during the winter months. METHODS: IRB approval was obtained prior to testing. Fifteen varsity female collegiate basketball players (age = 19.7 ± 1.4 y) volunteered to participate in the double blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 1) 2000 IU vitamin D3/daily or 2) 100 IU vitamin E/daily (i.e. placebo). Supplements were consumed for 60 days. Health questionnaires, T drill sprint tests, and vertical jump heights were completed pre- and post-supplementation. Serum vitamin D concentrations 25(OH)D3 were measured pre- and post-supplementation using a 25(OH)D3 ELISA assay.  SPSS t-tests were used for statistical analysis of data. Vitamin D deficiency was defined in accordance with the Endocrine Society guideline for inadequacy (<75 nmol/L). RESULTS: 79% of the subject population was vitamin D insufficient in October (67.4±24.4 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D3 significantly increased in the vitamin D group following supplementation, with 72% of the subjects achieving levels greater than 75 nmol/L in December (67.9±24.2 nmol/L to 79.0±18.2 nmol/L, p<0.05). In contrast, serum 25(OH)D3 decreased in the placebo group, but changes were not significant (66.9±26.5 nmol/L to 56.7±26.5 nmol/L, p>0.05).  The increase in serum 25[OH]D3 did not significantly affect vertical jump heights or T drill sprint times (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daily supplementation of 2000 IU vitamin D3 over a 60-day period increased serum 25(OH)D3, but the elevated vitamin D status did not improve our chosen measures of anaerobic performance in collegiate female basketball players. The lack of performance effects may indicate that a chronic deficiency of vitamin D or a more severe deficiency is necessary to adversely affect muscle function.