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Photography Techniques

ID Photography Tech Ingestion Haz Inhalation Haz Skin Contact Haz Other Hazards Precautions
1 BLACK & WHITE PHOTO PROCESSING




2 Mixing Photochemicals Glacial acetic acid corrosive; developing powders extremely toxic Glacial acetic acid corrosive; developing powders highly toxic Glacial acetic acid corrosive; developing powders moderately toxic Solutions/powders highly alkaline Use liquid solutions; use glove box, ventilation, respirator; wear gloves, goggles, apron; eyewash fountain, shower should be available; store acids on low shelves; don't store in glass containers; label carefully
3 Developing Baths Developers moderately toxic to highly toxic; Para-phenyl diamine highly toxic; sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate highly corrosive; potassium bromide moderately toxic; sodium sulfite moderately toxic Developers moderately toxic to highly toxic; Para-phenylene diamine highly toxic; potassium bromide moderately toxic; sodium sulfite moderately toxic (can form sulfur dioxide [highly irritating]) Developers irritating; Para-phenylene diamine highly toxic; sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate highly corrosive; potassium bromide moderately toxic Eye injury can result; Hydroquinone mutagen Don't put bare hands into developer baths; use tongs instead; if developer solution splashes onto skin or in eyes, rinse immediately w/lots of water; for eyes, continue rinsing for 15-20 minutes; have eyewash fountain; DON'T USE para-phenylene diamine
4 Stop Baths & Fixer Acetic acid highly toxic; sodium thiosulfate highly toxic; boric acid moderately toxic Acetic acid highly toxic; potassium chrome alum highly toxic; sodium thiosulfate highly toxic; boric acid moderately toxic Acetic acid highly toxic; final stop bath slightly toxic; potassium chrome alum highly toxic; alum slightly toxic; boric acid slightly toxic
All darkrooms need good ventilation; 10 air changes per hour, or 170 cfm; exhaust duct opening should be behind and above stop bath & fixer trays; wear gloves and goggles; cover all baths when not in use
5 Intensifiers & Reducers Mercury extremely toxic; sodium/potassium cyanide extremely toxic Potassium chlorochromate highly toxic if heated or if acid added; mercury highly toxic; sodium/potassium cyanide extremely toxic; potassium ferricyanide highly toxic if heated Potassium dichromate & chlorochromate irritating; hydrochloric acid corrosive; mercury moderately toxic; sodium/potassium cyanide moderately toxic Potassium dichromate & chlorochromate probable carcinogen; uranium intensifiers radioactive; potassium permanganate, ammonium persulfate may cause fires Chromium intensifiers least toxic, although probable carcinogen; wear gloves/goggles/respirator; use glove box; don't expose potassium chlorochromate to acid or heat; DON'T USE mercury, cyanide or uranium intensifiers/reducers; safest reducer is Farmer's
6 Toners
Sodium/Potassium sulfide release highly toxic hydrogen sulfide gas; selenium gives off sulfur dioxide, hydrogen selenide gas (highly toxic) Selenium irritating; gold, platinum salts strong sensitizers Thiourea probable carcinogen Wear gloves, goggles, respirator; mix powders in glove box; use ventilation; make sure that sulfide or selenium toners aren't contaminated w/acids; rinse prints well between bleaching & developing; AVOID thiourea whenever possible
7 Other Black-and-White Chemicals Concentrated sulfuric acid, mixed w/potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate highly corrosive Hypochlorite bleaches can release highly toxic chlorine gas when heated/acid added Concentrated sulfuric acid, mixed w/potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate highly corrosive; potassium persulfate, other oxidizing agents irritating Potassium persulfate, other oxidizing agents may cause fires Wear gloves, goggles, and acid-proof apron; make sure acid always added to water when diluting; don't add acid to, or heat, hypochlorite bleaches; keep potassium persulfate away from flammable substances; install ground fault interrupters
8 COLOR PROCESSING




9 Developing Baths Para-phenylene diamine, dimethyl, diethyl derivatives highly toxic Para-phenylene diamine, dimethyl, diethyl derivatives highly toxic, amines strongly irritating; solvents haz. Para-phenylene diamine, dimethyl, diethyl derivatives highly toxic; amines strongly irritating; solvents haz.
Wear gloves, goggles, respirator; wash gloves w/acid-type hand cleaner & water before removing them; barrier creams don't work; mix powders in glove box; use exhaust hood, ducted to the outside
10 Bleaching, Fixing, and Other Steps Formaldehyde highly toxic; methanol highly toxic; succinaldehyde highly toxic; concentrated acids corrosive Formaldehyde highly toxic; succinaldehyde highly toxic; concentrated acids corrosive; acid solutions w/sulfites or bisulfites release toxic sulfur dioxide; hydrogen cyanide gas toxic Formaldehyde moderately toxic; succinaldehyde moderately toxic; hydroxylamine sulfate irritating; concentrated acids corrosive Formaldehyde probable carcinogen; hydroxylamine sulfate teratogen Use ventilation/respirator/gloves/goggles/apron; mix in glove box; avoid formaldehyde; add acid to water; eyewash & shower available; have water rinse step between bleach & fixing steps; don't add acid to potassium ferricyanide/thiocyanate
11 Color Retouching Formaldehyde highly toxic; methanol highly toxic; aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylene) moderately toxic Airbrushing haz.; formaldehyde highly toxic; potassium permanganate irritating; aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylene) highly toxic Formaldehyde moderately toxic; potassium permanganate irritating; aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylene) highly toxic Little is known about haz. of dyes; formaldehyde probable carcinogen. Swab/brush dyes; airbrush in spray booth; wear respirator; use exhaust fan; avoid formaldehyde; don't point brushes/wet pencils w/lips; use window exhaust fan w/aromatic hydrocarbons
12 OTHER PHOTO PROCESSES




13 Cyanotype (blueprinting) Ferric ammonium citrate, potassium ferricyanide moderately toxic; diluted hydrogen peroxide slightly toxic Ferric ammonium citrate, potassium ferricyanide slightly toxic; potassium dichromate haz.; carbon arc fumes highly toxic Ferric ammonium citrate, potassium ferricyanide slightly toxic; potassium dichromate haz.; diluted hydrogen peroxide slightly toxic Potassium ferricyanide releases hydrogen cyanide gas; potassium dichromate possible carcinogen; carbon arcs release uv radiation Don't use carbon arcs unless directly vented to outside; wear goggles w/shade #14; use sunlamp, sunlight, or other light source; use hydrogen peroxide to fix image
14 Van Dyke Process (brown printing) Silver nitrate highly toxic; sodium potassium tartrate, ferric ammonium citrate moderately toxic; sodium thiosulfate moderately toxic Silver nitrate moderately corrosive; sodium potassium tartrate, ferric ammonium citrate slightly toxic; gold chloride moderately toxic; sodium thiosulfate moderately toxic; carbon arc fumes highly toxic Silver nitrate moderately corrosive; sodium potassium tartrate, ferric ammonium citrate slightly toxic; gold chloride moderately toxic Carbon arcs produce uv radiation; old solutions of hypo produce highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas Wear gloves, goggles, goggles w/shade #14; don't spray silver nitrate; don't store hypo solutions for long time, and keep them covered; use w/general/local exhaust ventilation; don't use carbon arcs unless vented to outside
15 Platinum and Palladium Printing Platinum salts moderately irritating; oxalic acid, oxalate salts corrosive Platinum salts highly irritating; gold salts irritating; mercury, lead, uranium highly toxic; oxalic acid, oxalate salts corrosive; hydrochloric acid corrosive; chlorine gas highly toxic Platinum salts moderately irritating; gold salts irritating; mercuric chloride corrosive; oxalic acid, oxalate salts corrosive; hydrochloric acid corrosive Platinum/palladium use variety of toxic metals, corrosive acids, oxalate salts; potassium chlorate can cause fires Buy only liquid solutions; mix in lab hood/glove box; wear respirator, gloves, goggles, protective apron; avoid uranium, mercury, lead; use local exhaust ventilation; store potassium chlorate away from solvents; use emergency shower, eyewash fountain