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Painting & Drawing Pigments

ID Pigment Color Pigment Name Other Names Description Ingestion Haz Inhalation Haz Skin Contact Haz Other Hazards
1 BLACK Antimony Black Color Index No. 77050 Antimony sulfide Extremely toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Reaction with stomach acid may cause formation of hydrogen sulfide
2 Black Black Spinels

Chromium iron nickel black; Copper chromite black; Pigment Black 28; Iron cobalt black; Pigment black 29; Iron cobalt chromite black; Pigment Black 27; Manganese ferrite black; Pigment Black 26

Complex natural or synthetic oxides No significant hazards Not well studied Not well studied
3 Black Bone Black

Animal black; ivory black; Frankfurt black; Pigment Black 9

Charred animal bone No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
4 Black Carbon Black

Channel black; lamp black; Pigment Black 6 and 7

Carbon
Slightly toxic Slightly toxic
5 Black Charcoal Black

Birch black; mineral black; vegetable black; vine black; willow black; Pigment Black 8

Carbon and mineral No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
6 Black Graphite

Black lead; plumbago; stove black; Pigment Black 10


No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards Hazardous if contaminated with silica
7 Black Logwood

Natural black 3

Logwood extract May cause poisoning


8 Black Manganese Black

Pigment Black 14

Manganese dioxide Moderately toxic Highly toxic

9 Black Mars Black

Black iron oxide; magnetic oxide; Pigment Black 11

Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
10 BLUE Antwerp Blue

Pigment Blue 27

Prussian blue, aluminum oxide Moderately toxic

Produces highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas if heated or treated with acid or ultraviolet radiation
11 Blue Azurite Mountain blue; Pigment Blue 30 Copper mineral Highly toxic Moderately toxic

12 Blue Calcium-Strontium Sulfide

Pigment White 8,9; fluorescent blue

Calcium sulfide, strontium sulfide Highly toxic

Highly toxic by ingestion, due to the formation of hydrogen sulfide in stomach; causes skin irritation
13 Blue Cerulean Blue

Pigment Blue 35

Cobaltous stannate Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic
14 Blue Cobalt Blue

Thenard's blue; Pigment Blue 28

Cobaltous aluminate Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic
15 Blue Egyptian Blue

Pigment Blue 31

Copper calcium silicate Moderately toxic Moderately toxic

16 Blue Indanthrene Blue

Pigment Blues 21, 22, 60, 64, 65

Complex, insoluble anthraquinone vat dyes Generally slight Generally slight Generally slight Long-term studies under way
17 Blue Manganese Blue

Pigment Blue 33

Barium manganate, barium sulfate Possibly highly toxic Possibly highly toxic

18 Blue Peacock Blue

Brilliant blue; erioglaucine blue; Pigment Blue 24

Barium lake or precipitate of organic dye Slightly toxic

Chronic hazards unknown
19 Blue Peacock Blue R

Pigment Blue 3

Organic pigment Unknown Unknown Unknown
20 Blue Phthalocyanine Blue

Cyan blue; monastral blue; thalo blue; winsor blue; Pigment Blue 15

Copper phthalocyanine No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards Was contaminated with PCB's prior to 1982
21 Blue Prussian Blue

Berlin blue; Chinese blue; iron blue; milori blue; Paris blue; steel blue; Pigment Blue 27

Ferric ferrocyanide Moderately toxic

Produces extremely toxic hydrogen cyanide gas if heated or treated with acid or ultraviolet radiation
22 Blue Smalt

Pigment Blue 32

Potassium cobaltous silicate of various composition Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic
23 Blue Ultramarine Blue

Pigment Blue 29

Complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
24 Blue Victoria Blue Pigment Blue 10 Organic pigment Unknown Unknown Unknown
25 Blue Victoria Blue B Pigment Blue 2 Organic pigment Unknown Unknown Unknown
26 Blue Victoria Pure Blue B Pigment Blue 2 Organic pigment Not significant Unknown Unknown
27 BROWN BON Browns Pigment Brown 5 Azo pigment Unknown Unknown Unknown
28 Brown Burnt Sienna Raw sienna; Pigment Brown 6 Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
29 Brown Burnt Umber Mars brown; raw brown; Pigment Brown 7 Iron oxides, possibly manganese silicates or dioxide Moderately toxic Possibly highly toxic
Moderately toxic by ingestion if contaminated with manganese compounds
30 Brown Manganite Manganese brown; Pigment Brown 8 Manganese hydroxide and oxides Moderately toxic Highly toxic

31 Brown Sepia Natural Brown 9 Cuttlefish ink or mix of burnt sienna & lamp black No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
32 Brown Van Dyke Brown Pigment Brown 9 Treated Cassel earth with 80-90% organic materials, & iron, alumina, silica No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
33 GREEN Brilliant Green Pigment Green 1 Organic pigment Slightly toxic

Long-term hazards unknown
34 Green Chrome Green Milori green, Prussian green, Pigment Green 15 Lead chromate, ferric ferrocyanide Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; DO NOT USE
35 Green Chromium Oxide Green Chrome oxide green; olive green; permanent green; Pigment Green 17 Chromic oxide Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Possible carcinogen
36 Green Cobalt Green Pigment Green 19 Calcined cobalt, zinc and aluminum oxides Moderately toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic
37 Green Emerald Green Paris green, Veronese green, Pigment Green 21 Copper acetoarsenite Extremely toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; not used any more; sometimes, this name is used for less toxic pigments
38 Green Green Earth Pigment Green 23 Hydrated iron, magnesium, aluminum and potassium silicates No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
39 Green Hooker's Green
Mix of organic pigments


See specific pigments in mixture
40 Green Phthalocyanine Green Cyan green; monstral green; thalo green; Pigment Green 7 Polychlorinated copper phthalocyanine No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards Was often contaminated by PCB's prior to 1982
41 Green Pigment Green Pigment Green 8 Nitroso green No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Chronic hazards not well-studied
42 Green Prussian Green Pigment Green 36 Chlorinated and brominated copper phthalocyanine; may also be other pigments Unknown Unknown Unknown
43 Green Scheele's Green Paris green; Pigment Green 22 Cupric acetoarsenite; originally copper arsenite Extremely toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; not used any more
44 Green Ultramarine Green Pigment Green 24 Complex silicate of aluminum & sodium with sulfur No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
45 Green Verdigris Pigment Green 20 Copper dibasic acetate Highly toxic Moderately toxic

46 Green Viridian Emerald oxide of chromium; Emeraude green; Pigment Green 18 Hydrated chromic oxide Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Slightly toxic Possible carcinogen
47 ORANGE Ananthranone Orange Pigment Red 168
No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
48 Orange Benzidine Orange Diarylide; Pigment Orange 13 Insoluble azo pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity
49 Orange Cadmium Barium Orange Cadmium lithopone orange; Pigment Orange 20:1 Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, barium sulfate Slightly toxic Highly toxic
Probable carcinogen
50 Orange Cadmium Orange Pigment Orange 20 Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide Slightly toxic Highly toxic
Probable carcinogen
51 Orange Chrome Orange Pigment Orange 21 Basic lead chromate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; DO NOT USE
52 Orange Hansa Orange Dinitroaniline orange; orthonitroaniline orange; Pigment Orange 1,2,5 Insoluble azo pigments Slightly toxic

Mutagenic in bacteria
53 Orange Mars Orange Pigment Red 101 Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
54 Orange Mercadmium colors Pigment Orange 23 Cadmium sulfide, mercuric sulfide complexes Extremely toxic Highly toxic Slightly toxic Probable carcinogen; causes skin allergies; forms hydrogen sulfide in combination with stomach acid
55 Orange Molybdate Orange Pigment Red 104 Lead chromate, lead molybdate, lead sulfate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; DO NOT USE
56 Orange Persian Orange Pigment Orange 17, 17:1 Barium lake of an azo dye No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
57 RED Acid Red Acid scarlet; pigment scarlet; scarlet red; Pigment Red 60 Barium lake of an azo dye or insoluble azo pigment Unknown Unknown Unknown
58 Red Alizarin Crimson Alizarin; crimson madder; rose madder; madder lake; Pigment Red 83 Lakes of 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone or insoluble anthraquinone pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Slightly toxic May cause some allergies
59 Red Aniline Red Permanent red; Pigment Red 4 Chlorinated para-nitroaniline pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity
60 Red Antraquinone Red Pigment Red 177 Anthraquinone pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
61 Red Arylide Reds Pigment Red 2, 5, 7, 9, 14, 17, 22, 23, 63, 112, 146, 148, 170 Azo pigments No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity for those tested (all but Pigment Red 7, 63, 148); long-term hazards unknown
62 Red BON Reds and Maroons Segnale reds; Pigment Red 48, 48:1, 48:2, 48:3, 48:4, 52:1 Calcium, barium, and manganese salts of beta-hydroxynaphthoic acid dyes No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
63 Red Cadmium Barium Red Cadmium lithopone red; Pigment Red 108 Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, barium sulfate Possible chronic hazard Possible chronic hazard Can cause skin allergies Probable carcinogen
64 Red Cadmium Red Cadmium scarlet; Pigment Red 108 Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide Slightly toxic Highly toxic
Probable carcinogen
65 Red Cadmium Vermilion Red Cadmium mercury red; Pigment Red 113 Cadmium sulfide, mercuric sulfide No significant acute toxicity Highly toxic Slightly toxic; can cause skin allergies Probable carcinogen
66 Red Disazo Red Pigment Red 144 Azo pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
67 Red English Red Indian red; light red; Mars red; red iron oxide; terra rosa; Tuscan red, Pigment Red 101 Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
68 Red Lithol Reds Red lake R; Pigment Red 49, 49:1, 49:2 Sodium, barium, and calcium salts of soluble azo pigment

In presence of lipstick has caused allergies Some grades are contaminated with soluble barium compounds; may be contaminated with known carcinogen (beta-naphthylamine)
69 Red Lithol Rubines Pigment Red 57, 57:1, 57:2 Calcium salt of soluble azo dye No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
70 Red Para Red Pigment Red 1 Insoluble azo pigment Causes cyanosis Unknown Unknown Ingestion has caused cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia; causes bacterial mutations
71 Red Perylene Pigments Perylene maroon; Pigment Red 179; Perylene red; Pigment Red 149; Perylene scarlet; Pigment Red 190; Perylene vermilion; Pigment Red 123 Organic pigments No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
72 Red Pyrazolone Reds and Maroons Pigment Red 38, 41 Azo pigments No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
73 Red Quinacridone Pigments Quinacridone maroon; Pigment Red 206; Quinacridone maroon B; Pigment Violet 42; Quinacridone magenta; Pigment Red 202; Quinacridone red; Pigment Red 122 (also Pigment Violet 19) Organic pigments Mostly unknown Mostly unknown Mostly unknown
74 Red Red Lake C Pigment Red 53:1, 53:2 Insoluble metal salts of azo dyes No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Some grades have high soluble barium content
75 Red Red Lead Pigment Red 105 Lead tetroxide Highly toxic Highly toxic

76 Red Rhodamine Day-Glo Red; fluorescent red; Pigment Red 81; Pigment Violet 1 Phosphorus, tungsten, molybdenum salt of dye No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity
77 Red Toluidine Red Hansa red; Pigment Red 3 Insolube azo pigments Caused cyanosis Mostly unknown Mostly unknown In the past, ingestion has caused cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia due to contamination
78 Red Ultramarine Red Pigment Violet 15 Complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
79 Red Venetian Red Persian gulf oxide; red chalk; Spanish oxide; Pigment Red 102 Iron oxide, silica, alumina, lime, and magnesia No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
80 Red Vermilion Chinese vermilion; cinnabar; English vermilion; Pigment Red 106 Mercuric sulfide Extremely toxic Highly toxic Slightly toxic; can cause skin allergies Forms hydrogen sulfide in combination with stomach acid; most vermilion today is a mixture of less toxic organic pigments
81 VIOLET Cobalt Violet Pigment Violet 14 Cobalt phosphate Highly toxic Highly toxic

82 Violet Cobalt Violet Violet phosphates; Pigment Violet 14 Cobalt arsenite Extremely toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; not a common pigment; DO NOT USE
83 Violet Manganese Violet Fast violet; Nurnberg violet; permanent mauve; permanent violet; Pigment Violet 16 Manganese ammonium pyrophosphate Moderately toxic Highly toxic

84 Violet Mars Violet Pigment Red 101 Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
85 Violet Quinacridone Violet Quinacridone red; Pigment Violet 19 (also Pigment Red 122) Organic pigment No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Long-term hazards unknown
86 Violet Rhodamine Day-Glo red; fluorescent red; Pigment Red 81; Pigment Violet 1 Phosphorus, tungsten, and molybdenum salt of dye No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity May cause light sensitivity
87 Violet Thioindigoid Maroon Pigment Violet 38 Indigo derivative Unknown Unknown Unknown
88 Violet Ultramarine Violet Pigment Violet 15 Complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
89 WHITE Aluminum Hydrate Pigment White 24 Aluminum oxide No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
90 White Antimony White Antimony oxide; Pigment White 11 Antimony trioxide Moderately toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Probable carcinogen
91 White Barium White Barytes; blanc fixe; Pigment White 21, 22 Barium sulfate No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards Hazards if contaminated with soluble barium compounds
92 White Chalk Whiting; Pigment White 18 Calcium carbonate No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
93 White Gloss White Pigment White 23 Aluminum hydroxide, barium sulfate No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
94 White Leaded Zinc Oxide Pigment White 4 Zinc oxide, lead sulfate Highly toxic Highly toxic

95 White Lithopone Pigment White 5 Barium sulfate, zinc sulfide Extremely toxic Moderately toxic
Zinc sulfide might react with stomach acid to produce hydrogen sulfide
96 White Magnesite Light magnesium oxide; Pigment White 18 Magnesium carbonate Moderately toxic


97 White Mica Pumice; Pigment White 20
No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity
98 White Mixed White
Basic lead carbonate, zinc oxide Highly toxic Highly toxic

99 White Silica Pigment White 27 Quartz No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Chronic inhalation may cause silicosis
100 White Talc Pigment White 26 Hydrated magnesium silicate No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity No significant acute toxicity Highly toxic by chronic inhalation; may be contaminated with asbestos or silica
101 White Titanium White Titanium oxide; Pigment White 6 Titanium dioxide No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards Inhalation of large amounts over several years may cause a benign pneumoconiosis without ill effects; shows on x-rays
102 White White Lead Cremnitz white; flake white; foundation white; silver white; Pigment White 1 Basic lead carbonate, sometimes with small amounts of extenders Highly toxic Highly toxic

103 White White Lead Basic sulfate white lead; Pigment White 2 Basic lead sulfate, sometimes with a small amount of zinc oxide Highly toxic Highly toxic

104 White Witherite Pigment White 10 Barium carbonate Extremely toxic Highly toxic

105 White Zinc Sulfide Pigment White 7
Extremely toxic Moderately toxic
Zinc sulfide might react with stomach acid to produce hydrogen sulfide
106 White Zinc White Chinese white; permanent white; Pigment White 4 Zinc oxide Moderately toxic Slightly toxic
Pigment White 4 may also contain lead
107 YELLOW Anthrapyrimidine Yellow Pigment Yellow 108 Organic pigment No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards Chronic hazards not well studied
108 Yellow Barium Yellow Lemon yellow; Pigment Yellow 31 Barium chromate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen
109 Yellow Benzidine Yellows Diarylide; Pigment Yellow 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 55, 83 Insoluble azo pigments No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards Chronic hazards not well studied; prior to 1982, could be contaminated with PCB's
110 Yellow Cadmium Yellow Aurora; cadmium primrose yellow; Pigment Yellow 35, 37 Cadmium sulfide Possible chronic hazard Possible chronic hazard
Probable carcinogen
111 Yellow Cadmium Barium Yellow Cadmium lithpone yellow; Pigment Yellow 35 Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, barium sulfate, zinc sulfide Possible chronic hazard Possible chronic hazard
Probable carcinogen
112 Yellow Chrome Yellow Chrome lemon; lemon chrome yellow; primrose; primrose yellow; yellow chrome orange; Pigment Yellow 34 Lead chromate, sometimes with lead sulfate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; DO NOT USE
113 Yellow Cobalt Yellow Aureolin; Pigment Yellow 40 Potassium cobaltinitrite Highly toxic Highly toxic
Ingestion has caused cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia
114 Yellow Hansa Yellow Pigment Yellow 1-6, 10, 60, 65, 73-75; Pigment Orange 1 Insoluble azo pigments No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards No significant acute hazards Chronic hazards not well studied
115 Yellow King's Yellow Orpiment; realgar; Pigment Yellow 39 Arsenic trisulfide, sometimes lead chromate Extremely toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; not used today
116 Yellow Mars Yellow Ochre; raw sienna; sienna; yellow ochre; yellow iron oxide; Pigment Yellow 42, 43 Iron oxides No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
117 Yellow Naples Yellow Antimony yellow; Pigment Yellow 41 Lead antimonate, sometimes with zinc and bismuth oxides Unknown Highly toxic Moderately toxic Most Naples yellow pigments today are a mixture of less toxic organic pigments
118 Yellow Strontium Yellow Lemon yellow; Pigment Yellow 32 Strontium chromate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen
119 Yellow Toluidine Yellow Pigment Yellow 1, 3 Insoluble azo pigment Mostly unknown Mostly unknown Mostly unknown Ingestion has caused cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia
120 Yellow Zinc Yellow Pigment Yellow 36 Zinc chromate Highly toxic Extremely toxic Highly toxic Known carcinogen; DO NOT USE
121 METALLIC Aluminum Powder Pigment Metal 1 Aluminum No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
122 Metallic Bronze Powder Copper bronze powder; Pigment Metal 2 80-90% copper, 1% zinc, iron Moderately toxic

Moderately toxic by ingestion, especially if corroded by exposure to moisture
123 Metallic Copper Alloy Pigment Metal 2 Copper, zinc, aluminum, tin Moderately toxic

Moderately toxic by ingestion, especially if corroded by exposure to moisture
124 Metallic Gold Bronze Powders Green gold bronze; pale gold bronze; rich gold bronze; Pigment Green 10 68-92% copper, 6-31% zinc, 0.25-10% aluminum Moderately toxic

Moderately toxic by ingestion, especially if corroded by exposure to moisture
125 Metallic Metallic Gold Pigment Metal 3
No significant hazards No significant hazards No significant hazards
126 Metallic Metallic Lead Pigment Metal 4
Highly toxic Highly toxic

127 Metallic Metallic Silver




Silver particles that become embedded in skin cause localized argyria, a bluish-black discoloration that does not have any known ill effects