At the College of Saint Benedict and Order of Saint Benedict, we use two fairly similar systems for labeling chemical hazards. The Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) and the National Fire Protection Agency – (NFPA 704). All employees, students, residents, contractors who work with or around chemicals must understand these uniform Labeling Systems as described below.
Both systems describe three basic hazard classifications, health, flammability, and reactivity. The systems differ in the fourth category. The HMIS provides pictorial information on required protective equipment, while NFPA gives specific hazard information particularly associated with that chemical.
Health Hazards are those that can affect the immediate or long term health of an employee if exposed to a specific chemical. Acute effects of exposure are those that present symptoms when exposure occurs, such as when skin is exposed to an acid. Delayed or long-term health effects can also occur from chemical exposure, such as cancer. Health effects for any given chemical will depend on the toxicity, duration of exposure and amount of exposure.
Flammability ratings range from non-flammable to highly flammable. The HMIS ratings are based on the material flashpoint - the temperature at which the chemical vapors will ignite.
Reactivity ratings describe the hazards of the material stability - some chemicals will explode or react violently if exposed to heat or shock.
When uniformly practiced these systems can help us control chemical hazard through:
- Proper labeling of all chemicals
- Proper chemical storage containers & areas
- Segregation of incompatible chemicals
- Personal Protective Equipment
- Use of chemicals by trained and authorized employees
- Use of minimum amount necessary
- Bonding & Grounding of flammable liquid containers
1 - Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS)
4 - Severe
3 - Extreme Danger
2 - Hazardous
1 - Slightly Hazardous
0 - Normal Material
|Fire Hazards - Flash Points
4 - Below 73 degrees F
3 - Below 100 degrees F
2 - Above 100 degrees F
1 - Will Not Burn
4 - May Detonate
3 - Shock or heat may cause detonation
2 - Violent change
1 - Unstable if heated
0 - Stable
Follow PPE requirements and any other special instructions listed.
CHEMICAL NAME and No.
For additional hazard information and instructions, consult the specific chemical Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
2 - National Fire Protection Agency – NFPA 704
|Fire Hazards - Flash Points
4 - Below 73° F
3 - Below 100° F
2 - Below 200° F
1- Above 200° F
0 - Will Not Burn
4 - Deadly
3 - Extreme Danger
2 - Hazardous
1- Slightly Hazardous
0 - Normal Material
4 - May Detonate
3 - Shock or heat may cause detonation
2 - Violent chemical change
1 - Unstable if heated
0 - Stable
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The safety data sheet (SDS) is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes the physical and chemical properties, health hazards, routes of entry, precautions for safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid procedures, and control measures. This information is not only helpful in selecting appropriate products but provides employers and employees with the facts they need to use, store or dispose of the substance safely and to respond to an emergency.
- CSB/SJU must maintain a complete and accurate SDS for each hazardous substance used in their facility and are entitled to obtain this information upon purchase of the material.
- Manufacturers (anyone who produces, synthesizes, extracts, or otherwise makes, processes, blends, packages, or repackages) of hazardous substances or equipment, which generates a harmful physical agent, are required to provide employers who use their products with complete, up-to-date SDSs.
- In the event, CSB/SJU department is unable to obtain a SDS from a supplier or manufacturer, the EHS office should be notified as soon as possible. EHS will make further necesary attempts to obtain the SDS
- When new and significant information becomes available concerning a product's hazards, chemical manufacturers, importers, or distributors must add it to their SDS within three months and provide it to their customers with the next shipment of the product.
Note: If the name or identity of a hazardous substance is considered proprietary (trade secret) by the manufacturer, that information can be registered as a trade secret with the Department of Labor and Industry. Formulations and procedures are automatically considered trade secret and need not be registered. Information on registering trade secrets may be obtained from any Minnesota OSHA Office.
To meet the intent of the Employee Right-To-Know Standard, the SDS must meet all requirements of the Federal OSHA "Hazard Communication" Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200 and GHS.
To meet the requirements of ERTK and 29 CFR 1910.1200, the SDS must be in English or a language understood by employees; must be current, accurate, and all 16 sections of the SDS completed; and must include the following information:
Section 1: Identification -
This section identifies the chemical on the SDS as well as the recommended uses. It also provides the essential contact information of the supplier. The required information consists of:
Product identifier used on the label and any other common names or synonyms by which the substance is known.
Name, address, phone number of the manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party, and emergency phone number.
Recommended use of the chemical (e.g., a brief description of what it actually does, such as flame retardant) and any restrictions on use (including recommendations given by the supplier).
Section 2: Hazard(s) identification -
This section identifies the hazards of the chemical presented on the SDS and the appropriate warning information associated with those hazards. The required information consists of:
The hazard classification of the chemical (e.g., flammable liquid, category1).
Pictograms (the pictograms or hazard symbols may be presented as graphical reproductions of the symbols in black and white or be a description of the name of the symbol (e.g., skull and crossbones, flame).
Description of any hazards not otherwise classified.
For a mixture that contains an ingredient(s) with unknown toxicity, a statement describing how much (percentage) of the mixture consists of ingredient(s) with unknown acute toxicity. Please note that this is a total percentage of the mixture and not tied to the individual ingredient(s).
Section 3: Composition/information on ingredients -
This section identifies the ingredient(s) contained in the product indicated on the SDS, including impurities and stabilizing additives. This section includes information on substances, mixtures, and all chemicals where a trade secret is claimed. The required information consists of:
Common name and synonyms.
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number and other unique identifiers.
Impurities and stabilizing additives, which are themselves classified and which contribute to the classification of the chemical.
Same information required for substances.
The chemical name and concentration (i.e., exact percentage) of all ingredients which are classified as health hazards and are:
Present above their cut-off/concentration limits or
Present a health risk below the cut-off/concentration limits.
The concentration (exact percentages) of each ingredient must be specified except concentration ranges may be used in the following situations:
A trade secret claim is made,
There is batch-to-batch variation, or
The SDS is used for a group of substantially similar mixtures.
Chemicals where a trade secret is claimed
A statement that the specific chemical identity and/or exact percentage (concentration) of composition has been withheld as a trade secret is required.
Section 4: First-aid measures -
This section describes the initial care that should be given by untrained responders to an individual who has been exposed to the chemical. The required information consists of:
Necessary first-aid instructions by relevant routes of exposure (inhalation, skin and eye contact, and ingestion).
Description of the most important symptoms or effects, and any symptoms that are acute or delayed.
Recommendations for immediate medical care and special treatment needed, when necessary.
Section 5: Fire-fighting measures -
This section provides recommendations for fighting a fire caused by the chemical. The required information consists of:
Recommendations of suitable extinguishing equipment, and information about extinguishing equipment that is not appropriate for a particular situation.
Advice on specific hazards that develop from the chemical during the fire, such as any hazardous combustion products created when the chemical burns.
Recommendations on special protective equipment or precautions for firefighters.
Section 6: Accidental release measures -
This section provides recommendations on the appropriate response to spills, leaks, or releases, including containment and cleanup practices to prevent or minimize exposure to people, properties, or the environment. It may also include recommendations distinguishing between responses for large and small spills where the spill volume has a significant impact on the hazard. The required information may consist of recommendations for:
Use of personal precautions (such as removal of ignition sources or providing sufficient ventilation) and protective equipment to prevent the contamination of skin, eyes, and clothing.
Emergency procedures, including instructions for evacuations, consulting experts when needed, and appropriate protective clothing.
Methods and materials used for containment (e.g., covering the drains and capping procedures).
Cleanup procedures (e.g., appropriate techniques for neutralization, decontamination, cleaning or vacuuming; adsorbent materials; and/or equipment required for containment/clean up).
Section 7: Handling and storage -
This section provides guidance on the safe handling practices and conditions for safe storage of chemicals. The required information consists of:
Precautions for safe handling, including recommendations for handling incompatible chemicals, minimizing the release of the chemical into the environment, and providing advice on general hygiene practices (e.g., eating, drinking, and smoking in work areas is prohibited).
Recommendations on the conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities. Provide advice on specific storage requirements (e.g., ventilation requirements).
Section 8: Exposure controls/personal protection -
This section indicates the exposure limits, engineering controls, and personal protective measures that can be used to minimize worker exposure. The required information consists of:
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs), American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing the safety data sheet, where available.
Appropriate engineering controls (e.g., use local exhaust ventilation, or use only in an enclosed system).
Recommendations for personal protective measures to prevent illness or injury from exposure to chemicals, such as personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., appropriate types of eye, face, skin or respiratory protection needed based on hazards and potential exposure).
Any special requirements for PPE, protective clothing or respirators (e.g., type of glove material, such as PVC or nitrile rubber gloves; and breakthrough time of the glove material).
Section 9: Physical and chemical properties -
This section identifies physical and chemical properties associated with the substance or mixture.
The minimum required information consists of:
• Appearance (physical state, color, etc.); • Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits;
• Odor; • Vapor pressure;
• Odor threshold; • Vapor density;
• pH; • Relative density;
• Melting point/freezing point; • Solubility(ies);
• Initial boiling point and boiling range; • Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water;
• Flash point; • Auto-ignition temperature;
• Evaporation rate; • Decomposition temperature; and
• Flammability (solid, gas); • Viscosity.
The SDS may not contain every item on the above list because information may not be relevant or is not available. When this occurs, a notation to that effect must be made for that chemical property. Manufacturers may also add other relevant properties, such as the dust deflagration index (Kst) for combustible dust, used to evaluate a dust's explosive potential.
Section 10: Stability and reactivity -
This section describes the reactivity hazards of the chemical and the chemical stability information. This section is broken into three parts: reactivity, chemical stability, and other.
The required information consists of:
Description of the specific test data for the chemical(s). This data can be for a class or family of the chemical if such data adequately represent the anticipated hazard of the chemical(s), where available.
Indication of whether the chemical is stable or unstable under normal ambient temperature and conditions while in storage and being handled.
Description of any stabilizers that may be needed to maintain chemical stability.
Indication of any safety issues that may arise should the product change in physical appearance.
Indication of the possibility of hazardous reactions, including a statement whether the chemical will react or polymerize, which could release excess pressure or heat, or create other hazardous conditions. Also, a description of the conditions under which hazardous reactions may occur.
List of all conditions that should be avoided (e.g., static discharge, shock, vibrations, or environmental conditions that may lead to hazardous conditions).
List of all classes of incompatible materials (e.g., classes of chemicals or specific substances) with which the chemical could react to produce a hazardous situation.
List of any known or anticipated hazardous decomposition products that could be produced because of use, storage, or heating. (Hazardous combustion products should also be included in Section 5 (Fire-Fighting Measures) of the SDS.)
Section 11: Toxicological information -
This section identifies toxicological and health effects information or indicates that such data are not available. The required information consists of:
Information on the likely routes of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, skin and eye contact). The SDS should indicate if the information is unknown.
Description of the delayed, immediate, or chronic effects from short- and long-term exposure.
The numerical measures of toxicity (e.g., acute toxicity estimates such as the LD50 (median lethal dose)) - the estimated amount [of a substance] expected to kill 50% of test animals in a single dose.
Description of the symptoms. This description includes the symptoms associated with exposure to the chemical including symptoms from the lowest to the most severe exposure.
Indication of whether the chemical is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Report on Carcinogens (latest edition) or has been found to be a potential carcinogen in the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs (latest editions) or found to be a potential carcinogen by OSHA.
Section 12: Ecological information
This section provides information to evaluate the environmental impact of the chemical(s) if it were released to the environment. The information may include:
Data from toxicity tests performed on aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms, where available (e.g., acute or chronic aquatic toxicity data for fish, algae, crustaceans, and other plants; toxicity data on birds, bees, plants).
Whether there is a potential for the chemical to persist and degrade in the environment either through biodegradation or other processes, such as oxidation or hydrolysis.
Results of tests of bioaccumulation potential, making reference to the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and the bioconcentration factor (BCF), where available.
The potential for a substance to move from the soil to the groundwater (indicate results from adsorption studies or leaching studies).
Other adverse effects (e.g., environmental fate, ozone layer depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, endocrine disrupting potential, and/or global warming potential).
Section 13: Disposal considerations,
This section provides guidance on proper disposal practices, recycling or reclamation of the chemical(s) or its container, and safe handling practices. To minimize exposure, this section should also refer the reader to Section 8 (Exposure Controls/Personal Protection) of the SDS.
The information may include:
Description of appropriate disposal containers to use.
Recommendations of appropriate disposal methods to employ.
Description of the physical and chemical properties that may affect disposal activities.
Language discouraging sewage disposal.
Any special precautions for landfills or incineration activities.
Section 14: Transport information,
This section provides guidance on classification information for shipping and transporting of hazardous chemical(s) by road, air, rail, or sea. The information may include:
UN number (i.e., four-figure identification number of the substance)2.
UN proper shipping name2.
Transport hazard class(es)2.
Packing group number, if applicable, based on the degree of hazard2.
Environmental hazards (e.g., identify if it is a marine pollutant according to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code)).
Guidance on transport in bulk (according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/783 and the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code)).
Any special precautions which an employee should be aware of or needs to comply with, in connection with transport or conveyance either within or outside their premises (indicate when information is not available).
Section 15: Regulatory information -
This section identifies the safety, health, and environmental regulations specific for the product that is not indicated anywhere else on the SDS. The information may include:
Any national and/or regional regulatory information of the chemical or mixtures (including any OSHA, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, or Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations).
Section 16: Other information -
This section indicates when the SDS was prepared or when the last known revision was made.
The SDS may also state where the changes have been made to the previous version. You may wish to contact the supplier for an explanation of the changes. Other useful information also may be included here.
Appendix C: Industrial sources of non-ionizing radiation*
54-72, 76-88, 174-216 MHZ
|Cathode-ray tubes||Information processing systems such as CRT-based video display terminals; CRT-TV monitors||10-50 kHz|
|Communications||Fixed systems; tropospheric scatter; satellite communication; microwave point-to-point (relay); high-frequency radio
Mobile systems; CB radios; walkie-talkies
|0.8-15 GHz; generally well controlled
27-800 MHZ; may produce high field strengths near antennae
|Diathermy||Shortwave microwave||13.56 and 27.12 MHZ; 915 and 2450 MHZ; may be continuous wave (CW) or pulsed wave (PW); consider duty cycle and leakage fields|
|Dielectric heaters||Seal/emboss plastics; cure glues, resins, particle boards, and panels; bake sand cores; mold appliance covers and auto parts; heat paper products||1-100 MHZ; mainly 27.12 MHZ; may produce high E and/or H fields|
|Electronic equipment||Switching regulator in copying machines, microcomputers, etc.||Usually shielded.|
|Electronic security systems||Intrusion alarms; theft detection; speed sensors; distance monitor; motion detection||Usually microwave frequencies|
|Electro-surgical devices||Cauterizing or coagulating tissues||May be CW or PW; solid state or spark-gap design|
|Hyperthermia||Same frequencies as diathermy||Applicators may be implantable|
|Induction heaters||Deep hardening; forging; welding; soft soldering; brazing; annealing; tempering metals and semiconductors; heat and draw optical fibers; epitaxial growth; plasma torching.||250-500 kHz and ELF; may product high E and/or H fields.|
|Lasers||Etching/engraving, welding, optical and other medical surgery, communications, research||Gas, crystalline liquid and semi-conductor lasers|
|Microwave heaters (including microwave ovens)||Drying wood, paper, film, inks; thawing, cooking, baking, dehydrating, pasteurizing, and sterilizing foodstuffs; curing plastics; solvent desorption||915 and 2450 MHZ|
|Plasma processors||Chemical milling; nitriding steel; polymerization; modifying polymer surfaces; depositing and hardening coatings and films; etching, cleaning, or stripping photoresist.||0.1-27.12 MHZ; consider potential for exposure to plasma gases|
|Radar||Acquisition and tracking; air and auto traffic control; marine uses; surveillance||1-15 GHz; usually PW|
|Spectroscopic instruments||Excite emissions from lamps/phototubes used in quantitative analysis||2.45 GHz|
|Welding||Production of pipe, tube, and beam; spot welding.||RF-stabilized; 0.4-100 MHZ with harmonics|
* Not all sources shown in this table are in the electromagnetic frequencies covered by ERTK.
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Heat stress may occur year round in areas with heat producing equipment such as in foundries, kitchens, or laundries. In Minnesota, high temperatures and humidity are common during the summer with daily temperatures routinely varying up to 30 degrees. This variation does not always allow people to become acclimatized and stay acclimatized, thereby increasing the risk of heat stress.
Heat stress results from a combination of internal heat production from doing work and external heat exposure from the environment. Both aspects need to be addressed properly to control heat stress.
Two commonly used instruments to obtain heat stress measurements are the heat stress monitor and a sling psychrometer. The heat stress monitor measures several temperatures simultaneously and accounts for radiant heat and air movement. The sling psychrometer is a much cheaper and simpler device, but does not take into account radiant heat, and air movement must be determined separately.
The measurements obtained from either of these instruments are converted to one value, the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), for determining compliance with Minnesota Rules. WBGT is an index of heat stress indicating relative comfort. It considers temperature, humidity and air movement. The calculated value can then be compared to those found in Minnesota Rules § 5205.0110, subpart 2a (see this Appendix).
Minnesota Rules 5205.0110, subpart 2a, is the Minnesota OSHA standard for heat exposure. The standard is based on wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of work activity. Contact EHS for information or measurement and calculation of heat stress, if suspected in your department. If the measurements indicate heat stress limit is approached or exceeded, Employee Right-to-Know requirements specified in Minnesota Rules 5206.0700, subparts 1 and 3, "Training Program for Harmful Physical Agents," and Minnesota Rules 5206.1100, "Labeling Harmful Physical Agents; Label Content," will apply.
Indoor workroom ventilation and temperature conditions:
A. The following definitions apply when assessing and controlling health hazards associated with extremes in temperature and humidity indoors.
- "Wet bulb globe temperature index" or "WBGT" means a measure of the combined effect of air temperature, air speed, humidity, and radiation. WBGT = 0.7 Tnwb + 0.3 Tg.
- "Natural wet-bulb temperature" or "Tnwb" means temperature measured by a thermometer which has its sensor covered by a wetted cotton wick, exposed to natural air movement.
- "Globe temperature" or "Tg" means temperature measured by a thermometer with its sensor inside a matte black globe, exposed to radiant heat, Vernon Globe or equivalent.
- "Heavy work" means 350 to 500 kcal/hr (kilocalories per hour), for example: heavy lifting and pushing, shovel work.
- "Moderate work" means 200 to 350 kcal/hr., for example: walking about with moderate lifting and pushing.
- "Light work" means up to 200 kcal/hr., for example: sitting or standing performing light hand or arm work.
B. Employees shall not be exposed to indoor environmental heat conditions in excess of the values listed in Table 1. The values in Table 1 apply to fully clothed acclimatized workers.
Table 1. Two-hour time-weighted average permissible heat exposure limits.
C. Employees with exposure to heat shall be provided training according to part 5206.0700, subparts 1 and 3.
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Appendix E: Sources of information
CSB/OSB Environmental Health and Safety
|Environmental Health and Safety Office
College of Saint Benedict
Main Build. G44
Phone (320) 363-5277
e-mail: [email protected]
|Environmental Health and Safety Office
Order of Saint Benedict
Phone (320) 363-3267
e-mail: [email protected]
Minnesota OSHA offices
Questions concerning the Employee Right-To-Know Standard may be directed to the following Minnesota OSHA Offices:
443 Lafayette Road N.
St. Paul, MN 55155-4307
Phone: (651) 284-5050
Fax: (651) 297-2527
Federal OSHA Standards:
The Federal OSHA Standards — which include 1910.1200 "Hazard Communication" and 1910.95 "Occupational Exposure to Noise are good references sources.
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acidosis — a condition of decreased alkalinity of the blood.
ACGIH — American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc.
action level — the exposure level which triggers some but not all requirements in certain OSHA standards.
acute toxicity — the adverse effects resulting from a single dose of or exposure to a substance.
alkali — any compound having highly basic properties.
anesthesia — loss of sensation or feeling.
asphyxia — lack of oxygen and thus interference with the oxygenation of the blood.
asphyxiant — a vapor or gas that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation.
boiling point, BP — the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
BZ — breathing zone
carcinogen — a chemical that has been demonstrated to cause cancer in humans.
CAS number [chemical abstract service number] -- an assigned number used to identity a material; the numbers have no chemical significance.
ceiling value, CV — the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.
CFM (cubic feet per minute) -- volume of air flow.
chemical pneumonitis — inflammation of the lungs due to chemical irritation.
CNS — central nervous system.
CO (carbon monoxide) — a colorless, odorless, highly poisonous gas, formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon or a carbonaceous material, including gasoline. A chemical asphyxiant, it reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
CO2 (carbon dioxide) — a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition and used in food refrigeration, carbonated beverages, inert atmospheres, fire extinguishers, and aerosols. High concentrations can create hazardous oxygen-deficient environments that can cause asphyxiation.
combustible — OSHA defines combustible liquid within the "Hazard Communication Law" as any liquid having a flash point at or above 100F (38C), but below 200F (93.3C).
conjunctivitis — inflammation of the conjunctiva, the delicate membrane that lines the eyelids.
corrosive — a chemical that causes visible destruction of or irreversible alterations in living tissue.
cutaneous — pertaining to the skin.
dermal — used on or applied to the skin.
dermatitis — inflammation of the skin.
dyspnea — a sense of difficulty in breathing; shortness of breath.
edema — an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues.
evaporation rate — the rate at which a particular material will vaporize from the liquid or solid state to the gas state.
f/cc — fibers per cubic centimeter of air.
flammable — describes any solid, liquid or gas that will ignite easily and burn rapidly.
flash point — the lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture.
FPM (feet per minute) — velocity of air flow.
grounding — a safety practice to conduct an electrical charge to the ground.
hazardous material — a substance or mixture of substances having properties capable of producing adverse health or safety effects.
hematuria — the presence of blood in the urine.
HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air-purifying) — most efficient mechanical filter commonly available.
IARC — International Agency for Research on Cancer
IDLH — immediately dangerous to life and health.
jaundice — yellowish discoloration of tissues.
LC 50 — the lethal concentration of a material in air that on the basis of laboratory tests is expected to kill 50 percent of a group of test animals.
LD 50 — the lowest published lethal dose that will kill 50 percent of a group of test animals.
LEL (lower explosive limit) — refers to the lowest concentration of gas or vapor that will burn or explode if an ignition source is present.
LFM or lfm (linear feet per minute) — velocity of air flow.
mg/m³ — milligrams of material per cubic meter of air.
MSDS — material safety data sheet
mutagen — a chemical or physical agent that induces genetic mutations.
narcosis — stupor or unconsciousness produced by a narcotic drug or chemical.
NFPA — National Fire Protection Association.
NIOSH — National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
NTP — National Toxicology Program
odor threshold — the lowest concentration of a materials vapor in air that can be detected by smell.
particulate — small, separate pieces of an airborne material.
peak — maximum instantaneous allowable exposure for hazardous substances.
PEL (permissible exposure limit) — an exposure limit established by OSHA.
pH — the value that represents the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. [pH 7 = neutral; pH 0 = strong acid; pH 14 = strong alkaline.]
ppb (parts per billion) — parts of material per billion parts of air.
ppm (parts per million) — parts of material per million parts of air.
psychotropic — acting on the mind.
pulmonary edema — fluid in the lungs.
pyrophoric — a material that will ignite spontaneously in air below 130F (54C).
reactivity — a description of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction either by itself or with other materials with the release of energy.
reproductive health hazard — any agent that has a harmful effect on the adult male or female reproductive system or the developing fetus or child.
sensitization — an immune-response reaction state in which further exposure elicits an immune or allergic response.
silicosis — a condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs causing shortness of breath.
skin — notation used to indicate possible exposure to a chemical by absorption through the skin.
STEL — short-term exposure limit.
subcutaneous — beneath the skin.
target organ effects — chemically caused effects upon specifically listed organs and systems.
teratogen — an agent or substance that caused physical defects in a developing embryo.
TLV (threshold limit value) — a term established by ACGIH to express the airborne concentration of a material to which nearly all workers can be exposed day after day without adverse effects.
TWA (time-weighted average) — the expression for average exposure which accounts for fluctuating levels during a given time period.
UEL (upper explosive limit) — the highest concentration of a material in air that will produce an explosion.
unstable — tending toward decomposition or other unwanted chemical change during normal handling or storage.
vapor density — the weight of a vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of air.
vertigo — a feeling of revolving in space; dizziness, giddiness.
viscosity — measurement of the flow properties of a material.
water reactive — a chemical that releases a hazardous gas, often violently, upon contact with water.
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