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This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the political personality of U.S. Senator from the state of New York and former First Lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, from the conceptual perspective of Theodore Millon. Information concerning Hillary Clinton was collected from published biographical and autobiographical accounts, and synthesized into a personality profile using the second edition of the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM-IV.
The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of Personality Styles manuals. Hillary Clinton's primary personality patterns were found to be Dominant/controlling and Ambitious/self-serving, with secondary Conscientious/dutiful features and subsidiary, more situation-specific Contentious/resolute and Retiring/reserved traits.
Dominant individuals enjoy the power to direct others and to evoke obedience and respect; they are tough and unsentimental and often make effective leaders. Ambitious individuals are bold, competitive, and self-assured; they easily assume leadership roles, expect others to recognize their special qualities, and often act as though entitled.
Hillary Clinton's major personality strengths in a political role are her commanding presence and confident assertiveness. Her major personality-based shortcomings are uncompromising assertiveness, a lack of empathy and congeniality, and cognitive inflexibility. Faculty Advisor: Aubrey Immelman
Behavioral variability can be measured in operant research with LAG reinforcement schedules, in which sequences of responses are rewarded only if they differ from those previously entered. Performance on LAG schedules could be likened to a measure of flexibility or creativity in responding and has been related to a number of interesting manipulations of emotional states, including alcohol administration and in strains of animals used as a model of human Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Recently, reductions in behavioral variability have been related to depression levels in college students, however, it is impossible to draw causal conclusions based on human correlative research. What is needed is an animal model of depression which can be manipulated in order to observe changes in behavioral variability. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is one such animal model of depression. CMS is achieved through administration of mild daily stressors over a period of four to six weeks resulting in decreased consumption of sweetened water (reflecting anhedonia, a core symptom of depression).
In the current experiment, half the rats were stressed overnight using six different mild stressors randomly assigned daily; the stressors included cage tilt, all night lights, a strobe light, soiled cages, paired housing, and objects put in the rat's cage. Before and during the stress procedure the rats were water deprived and trained on LAG schedules for water reinforcement. Measures of behavioral variability in the CMS rats were compared to a control group which did not receive any stressors. It was predicted that the CMS group would be less variable than the control group. The obtained results will be discussed in terms of procedural variables associated with CMS effect. Faculty Advisor: Linda Tennison
This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Lillian Hellman, from the conceptual perspective of Theodore Millon. Information concerning Hellman was collected from biographies and synthesized into a personality profile using the second edition of the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM-IV.
The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of Personality Styles manuals. Hellman's primary personality patterns were found to be Contentious/oppositional and Dominant/controlling, with secondary features of the Ambitious/confident, Dauntless/venturesome, and Reticent/circumspect patterns.
The amalgam of Contentious (negativistic, or passive‑aggressive) and Dominant (aggressive, or sadistic) patterns in Hellman's profile suggests the presence of Millon's abrasive negativistsyndrome. For these personalities, minor frictions easily exacerbate into major confrontations and power struggles. They are quick to spot inconsistencies in others' actions or ethical standards and adept at constructing arguments that amplify observed contradictions. They characteristically take the moral high ground, dogmatically and contemptuously expose their antagonists' perceived hypocrisy, and contemptuously, derisively, and scornfully turn on those who cross their path.
The major implication of the study is that it offers an empirically based personological framework for conceptualizing Lillian Hellman's antagonistic negativism, single-minded commitment to a cause, and forceful rhetoric-qualities that may well have been essential for a woman to possess in order to achieve success in the male-dominated environment in which she worked at her time in history. Hellman was a remarkable playwright for her time and remains so today. Her personality looms large today and would have been something to behold in the middle part of the 20thcentury in which she produced most of her work. Hellman was able to rise to prominence in a time when women were largely subservient to men. Hellman did not subordinate herself to anyone and especially not to men. She sought to control everything she did and people were aware of her power. She became very political and was not afraid to fight against things she disagreed with, even to her own detriment, as witnessed by her blacklisting during the McCarthy era. Faculty Advisor: Aubrey Immelman
Nick Leonard - The temporal memory effects of exposure to predator odor are explored using the response rates of rats in an operant conditioning chamber.
Past research has shown that facial symmetry yields high ratings of attractiveness. Along with this fact, we hypothesized that individuals with high facial symmetry can afford to handicap that symmetry by an asymmetric hair part or by the asymmetric placement of a tattoo or piercing. Conversely, an individual lacking facial symmetry will strive for symmetry with a symmetric hair style and symmetric tattoos and piercings. Based on this, we designed a study to test for these factors.
A continuation on the research instrumented by Patrick Perrine. To conduct this research we have designed a questionnaire to provide information on mating preferences in six categories (past experiences, a sexual fantasy scale, age preferences, interest in uncommitted sex, partner's status, and physical attractiveness). We will be administering these questionnaires to students at the University of Minnesota and the College of St. Benedict/St. John's University. We predict that the differences amongst the two sexes and the two sexual orientations contraindicates evolutionary theories, which suggest mate preferences solely based on reproductive success.
Erin Steinbach - The relationship between cooperation/competition and job satisfaction.