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Abstracts - Poster Session II

Poster Session II

2:30 PM - 3:30 PM

Gorecki 204


1 Effect of Enrichment and Ethanol on the Anxiolitic Behavior of Swiss Webster Mice. Derek Bauer, St. Olaf College

Study attempts to examine the effect of both enrichment and ethanol on the anxiolitic behavior of Swiss Webster mice. Research has shown that both enrichment and ethanol decrease anxiety in mice in the elevated plus maze. This study examines the effect that both of these variables have when paired together. Null hypothesis is that when combined mice given the treatment of ethanol and enrichment will show decreased anxiety in the elevated plus maze. Experiment consists of two groups with an enriched group and non-enriched group. Both groups will be split evenly and be subjected to an ethanol injection or saline injection. Mice will undergo two trials and results will be recorded and analyzed via video.


2 Anger and Success in the Work Place: Gender Differences between Men and Women. Mych'Iayla Mathis, Buena Vista University

Some believe that women should maintain their status in the home and not in the workplace. Women who desire promotion, and reject the conventional norms may be viewed negatively. Women who possess communal characteristics (e.g. passive, feminine, etc.) may be more likely to excel. Women who possess agentic characteristics could be viewed as "angry" women. In this study, 30 predominantly White undergraduate students (20 women, 10 men) completed surveys containing questions about their views (on "angry" women in the workplace). Many of the students favored a woman possessing communal characteristics over a woman possessing agentic characteristics ("angry" woman). These findings suggest that women who are "angry" may face barriers in the workplace.


3 Hmong American Students' Perception of the Model Minority Stereotype and its Relationship with their Motivation to Achieve and Psychological Well-Being. Mai Youa Moua, Macalester College

Research on Hmong Americans is limited even in relation to the most prevalent and excessively studied stereotype affecting Asian Americans: the model minority stereotype. The present study investigated the relationship between belief in and endorsement of the stereotype and psychological well-being as well as motivation to achieve. A total of 94 undergraduate and graduate students of Hmong descent completed an online survey. The results indicated that belief in and endorsement of the stereotype is related to psychological well-being and motivation to achieve. Stronger endorsement is related to higher motivation to achieve while more belief in the stereotype is related to higher levels of well-being. There were no significant differences between females and males; however, slight differences existed between 1.5 and second generation Hmong students.


4 Medically Critical Time Periods Faced by Children with Congenital Heart Disease: How Frequency is Related to Parent's Coping Strategies. Mary Thoreson, College of St. Catherine

30 mothers with at least one child with congenital heart disease (CHD) answered a survey that consisted of 81 questions. Participants were asked to reflect on their coping strategies used to deal with medical critical time periods that their child with CHD has faced. Medically critical time periods are periods of time lasting greater than two weeks in which the child's life is threatened and when the parents are feeling uncertain about the future. It was hypothesized that parents would utilize more negative coping strategies when faced with a higher frequency of medically critical time periods. The hypothesis was partially supported, although further analysis is still needed.


5 Lexical Decision and the Diffusion Model: An Investigation into the Mental Lexicon. Jake Kurczek, St. Olaf College

The lexical decision is one of the most widely used tasks in cognition and memory and language. The EZ diffusion model for 2-choice decisions was applied to data from lexical decision experiments in which word frequency, orthographic neighborhood size, and priming condition were manipulated. By fitting the data to parameters used to generate a random walk model, the model provides a description of how the cognitive processes involved in the lexical decision task were affected by experimental variables. In this series of experiments we investigate how the changes in the dependent measures of the lexical decision task compare to each other and how they are represented in the parameters of the EZ diffusion model.


6 Partner Characteristic Preferences: A Study of the Effect of Gender, Duration, and Relationship Type on Desired Attributes. Emily O'Brien, Hanna Dielman, Mark Hammond, and Heidi Seltz, St. Olaf College

The purpose of this study was to examine males' and females' differing preferences in romantic and companionate relationships in both the short- and long-term. In order to do this, a questionnaire was designed that asked participants to allot points to nine attributes in each scenario according to their preferences. The attributes were divided into three categories: attractiveness (attractiveness, healthiness, and health habits), status & resources (social status, income, intelligence), and personality (humor, warmth, and loyalty). We found significant effects for gender, relationship type, and duration. Specifically, males tended to value attractiveness higher than females in both types and durations of relationships, while females most often gave personality the highest rating.


7 Trauma and Resilience: What We Can Learn from Naruto. Mai Cha Vang, University of St. Thomas

This study examines trauma and resiliency in the "Naruto" graphic novel/manga series. The characters Naruto (hero) and Gaara (villain) are examined using the framework of the Search Institute's 40 Developmental Assets. This study investigates the developmental assets that contribute to Naruto's resilience, as well as factors that could contribute to Gaara's negative trajectory. Suggestions for using "Naruto" in a therapeutic context are also discussed.
Key words: trauma, resiliency, Naruto, manga, fiction


8 Self Theories and the Transition to College. Martin Christianson, Kate Knight, Lacey Heggem, Jennifer Mike, Karen Sorensen, Casey Theis, and Caroline Wolden, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University

Previous research has found that people hold incremental and fixed theories about intelligence. Entity theorists believe intelligence cannot change, whereas incremental theorists believe that intelligence can change with effort. First year students completed an online survey during the fall semester. As hypothesized, the more students believed that intelligence was changeable the more likely they were to report lower stress and better adjustment to college. Holding an incremental theory of intelligence seems to be associated with benefits beyond academic success.


9 Beyond Orgasm: The Effects of Males' Exposure to Pornography on Sexual Objectification and Motives for Sex. Krista Yank, Macalester College

As the multi-billion dollar industry of pornography grows, it is necessary to examine the attitudes of its consumers. 287 men between ages sixteen and twenty-nine responded to an online survey and completed questionnaires about the frequency and duration of their exposure to pornography; motivations to engage in sexual activity; and sexual objectification of women. Correlational analyses found significant positive correlations between frequency of exposure to pornography and physical and goal attainment motives to have sex, and frequency of exposure and sexual objectification. Correlational analyses found no correlations or significant negative correlations between duration of exposure to pornography and physical and goal attainment motives to have sex, and duration of exposure and sexual objectification. Duration and frequency were significantly negatively correlated.


10 The Effects of Auditory and Visual Interference on Spatial Short-term Memory. Christina Hodge and Matthew McDonald, St. Olaf College

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auditory and visual interference on spatial short-term memory. The participants of the study were 9 wide receivers (WR) and 10 offensive linemen (OL) (N = 19) from a division three collegiate football team. Each participant underwent a series of three timed stepping tests that were designed to assess the subject's ability to carry out visual-spatial directions while various forms of interference (none, auditory, and visual) were introduced. The results showed that the auditory interference significantly increased the number of errors made by participants, and increased the amount of time it took them to complete the task. The results suggested that the participants used auditory strategies to memorize the stepping patterns.
Key Words: Spatial reasoning, Auditory interference, Visual interference, Working memory


11 Signal Detection Analyses of Visual Attention to Body Regions. Amy Belfi, Sarah Bain, Hayley Brooks, and Ann Kemen, St. Olaf College

Participants (12 Male, 14 Female) viewed computer-generated images of males and females and indicated the presence or absence of a dot stimulus which appeared briefly at 3 different body locations (Hips, Waist, Chest) on the images. The dot was present on a randomly selected 50% of trials. An analysis using the Theory of Signal Detection computed measures of sensitivity (D-prime) and Bias (Beta) for each subject. A significant effect of body location was found, as well as a significant interaction between body location and image gender. These results indicated that males and females both correctly identified present trials more often when the stimulus was located on the waist and hips as opposed to the chest region.


12 Does Year in School Influence the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Depression for College Students? Christen Glass, Macalester College

This study speculates that mental health may improve through the college years, especially for low SES students, as they get closer to realizing their goals of economic security. The study hypothesized, therefore, that the link between SES and depression will be less dramatic for older students than younger students. It also hypothesized that attitudes about one's economic prosperity will change as students approach graduation, and that this would alter the SES-depression link. While these hypotheses were not supported, there were marginally significant differences in reported depression scores for both year in school and SES. There were also marginally significant and significant differences between high and low SES college students' attitudes toward economic prosperity.

13 Withdrawn

14 Gender and Love. Christina Johnson, Buena Vista University

A person's attitude toward love can be influenced by gender. Hendrick and Hendrick (1986, 1995) constructed a love attitudes scale based on Lee's love styles theory. They showed that men had a game playing love style, and Women were more friendship oriented. However, there is influence with gender identity and social role theory when it comes to gender differences. Bem (1974) constructed an inventory to measure gender identity. To explore the relationship between gender differences on love with regards to gender identity and gender role theory, data was collected from 31 college students, 19 female and 12 males, from Buena Vista University. It is predicted that gender role identity influences love attitudes.


15 Emotional Responses to Flamenco Music. Emily Schedin, University of River Falls, Wisconsin

This research project was conducted to determine how flamenco music effects the emotions or general mood of people who listen to it. This relationship was assessed by handing out surveys to the audience of a weekly flamenco performance at a bar in Madrid, Spain. The content of the survey included questions that prompted participants to rate their experience of six different emotions in reaction to the music they heard. My hypothesis was that, due to the sad and depressing themes that flamenco music usually portrays, listeners would rate positive emotions lower and negative emotions higher. However, the results of these surveys showed little consistency in any specific emotion. This inconsistency may be due to many uncontrollable variables surrounding the study.


16 Student Perceptions of the Goals of Liberal Education. Ming Mun Chong and N. Rose Gaston, Bemidji State University

A continuing concern in the education literature is an alleged disconnection between student interests and the goals of liberal education in American Universities. In the present study, data was collected from a diverse sample of 333 college students to assess the degree of student understanding of the goals of the liberal education program at Bemidji State University. A majority (66.4%) of the participants perceived the goals of liberal education simply in terms of gaining broad knowledge and the opportunity to explore careers. Few students identified specific goals, such as civic, ethical, global, or multicultural awareness, or the development of thinking and communication skills. A significant number of students (10.5%) stated that they did not know the goals of liberal education.


17 Happily Never After: The Stereotypes of Single People on a College Campus. Jerica Wild, Buena Vista University

This study examines perceptions and stereotypes about people who are single. Participants were asked to provide demographic information, including whether they are single or currently in a relationship. Participants were asked to rate their current overall happiness and anticipated future happiness of current relationship status. Finally participants were provided a list of adjectives and asked to rate on a scale of 0-100, how these adjectives describe someone who is either in a relationship or single. People who are in a relationship (or single) are more likely to give positive attributes to people who are in a relationship (single) and negative attributes to people who are single (in a relationship).


18 Perceptions of the Relationship between Attractiveness and Intelligence. Lisa Beimert, Meaghan Coneys, Kelly Gustafson, and Mary Thoreson, College of St. Catherine

A common perception among American society is that physically attractive people possess many other socially-desirable traits, including intelligence. In fact, many studies have found a positive correlation between attractiveness and perceived intelligence. Additionally, a common stereotype is held that brunette women are more intelligent than blonde women. 66 female college students from the College of St. Catherine participated in a survey in which they rated photographs of two women and one man on attractiveness and intelligence. More specifically, we were focusing on perceptions of blondes versus brunettes and perceived intelligence, and women with and without makeup and perceived intelligence. There was no significant finding for differences in attractiveness between the brunette woman with and without makeup. The brunette woman was rated as more attractive than the blonde woman. There were no significant differences between intelligence ratings of either the blonde or brunette when wearing make-up as compared to no makeup. Our hypotheses were not supported; this could be due to the fact that women rating other women generate different results from more traditional studies where men rate women.


19 Can't Get No Satisfaction: Self-efficacy, Religiosity, Relationships and Life Satisfaction. Alisa Schilmoeller and Ben Dunfee, University of St. Thomas

Many factors have been shown to influence one's satisfaction with life. Our research explored different factors that contribute to the variance in life satisfaction among college students. We considered self-efficacy, religiosity, and quality of relationships with friends. Participants completed the Self-Efficacy Scale (Sherer, et al, 1982), the Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised (I/E-R) Scale (Gorsuch, & McPherson, 1989), a modified Roommate Rapport Scale (Carey, Hamilton, & Shanklin, 1986) to measure relationships with friends, instead of roommates, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). We predict that high self-efficacy, strong relationships with friends, and high religiosity will correlate strongly with high life satisfaction. The results of the study are discussed in detail on the poster.


20 Comparison of Sensation Seeking to Gender and Shyness. JD O'Connell, College of Saint Benedict/St. John's University

The current study investigated the relationship of sensation seeking with gender and shyness. Each of the undergraduate college students (N = 112) from the College of St. Benedict and St. John's University were gathered by convenience for this cross-sectional design for which one of the fourteen researchers, using a personal interview, administered a survey evaluating them on the aspects listed above. Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire inquiring about their gender. Men scored significantly higher in sensation seeking than women, and there was a negative correlation between sensation seeking and shyness; however, these results were not determined by gender. This potentially indicates specific gender roles as responsible for women's low scores and men's high scores in sensation seeking, as opposed to personal preference.


21 An Assessment of Gender Attitudes and Role Identity Associated with College Student Worries. Nick Barry, Courtney Payne, and Grace Cho, St. Olaf College

This study investigated 294 college students' gender role identity and attitudes about gender, and the extent to which they influenced everyday worrying experiences. Students completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), which assessed adherence to sex-typed characteristics, and the Pacific Attitudes about Gender scale (PATG), which assessed gender-egalitarian beliefs. The Worry Domains Questionnaire was used to assess worrying across five domains. Results indicated that females reported more worrying than males overall, and in every domain. Higher femininity scores on the BSRI were related with higher worrying, although masculinity was not related with worrying. Higher PATG scores were related to increased worrying for males, but not for females. Our findings highlight the important role gender plays in students' worrying experiences.


22 The Effect of Directed Forgetting on Completed and Uncompleted Tasks. Elizabeth Kiebel, Winona State University

65 Winona State students participated in an experiment that attempted to recreate the memory effects known as the Zeigarnik Effect and Directed Forgetting. In order to test the effects of Directed Forgetting on completed and uncompleted tasks (Zeigarnik Effect) a factorial design with 4 conditions was employed. Participants in all conditions solved 20 anagrams, spent 5-minutes on a logic task, and then recalled as many solutions to the anagrams as they could. Words were chosen for both their frequency in printed materials and solvability when rearranged. Although research is still underway, it is probable that no main effects will be found. There are a number of possible explanations for this, and they will be discussed after the data is analyzed.


23 Gender Differences in Cognitive Play: Will Gender-Stereotyped Patterns of Play Prevail in a Montessori-Influenced Childcare Center? Torrie Dahmen, College of St. Catherine

This observational study investigated whether or not the cognitive play of children in a Montessori-influenced daycare would be gender-stereotyped. Participants were middleclass children ages 2 ¾ to 6 of students/staff on the campus of a private, Midwestern women's college. Researchers used time-sampling techniques to observe children's activities in cognitive play categories of functional, constructive, dramatic, nonplay, and unoccupied/onlooking/transitional. Results analyzed using Chi Square Tests of Independence were significant for gender differences in overall cognitive categories of play (p = .000), and subcategories of constructive
(p = .004) and dramatic play (p = .000). Boys more frequently chose functional play; girls more frequently chose constructive and dramatic play. Even in a center influenced by Montessori, children exhibit gender-stereotyped play patterns.


24 Dietary Restrictions and Control over One's Health. Jillian Laffrey, Macalester College

This study attempts to illuminate the relationship between dietary restrictions and an internal health locus of control. Using a sample aged 18-26 with and without dietary restrictions, the researcher assessed the internality of health locus in a survey (Part I). In Part II, interviews were administered to a small sample of participants to examine the experience of living with a dietary restriction and its relationship to health perceptions. The study found that those with a dietary restriction have a higher likelihood of assuming an internal locus. The interviews developed a more comprehensive understanding of the reality of living with a dietary restriction, and found support for the hypothesis that those with a dietary restriction are more mindful of their health.


25 What's Your Future? Caitlin Gill and Lauren Williamson, University of St. Thomas

Thirty graduating seniors at the University of St. Thomas were given the Rotter (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control scale. In addition, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to determine their thoughts on the likelihood of getting into graduate school or starting a career. The researchers hypothesized that students with a greater internal locus of control would view themselves as more likely to get a job or be accepted into graduate school. The results of this study are discussed in detail.


26 Interaction between Memory & Language: Eyewitness Testimony and the Flawless Witness. Alyssa Kluver, Buena Vista University

Eye witness testimony is based on the memory for life events we witness. Numerous investigators have examined the relationship between eye witness testimony and leading questions. The hypothesis of the present experiment is that participants, when asked to fill out a questionnaire following the viewing of a short clip, will be more likely to respond as having seen the object in question when the question contains the word the versus a. As part of a 1 (video watched) x 2 (questions wording: the or a) between subjects design, thirty nine eighteen to twenty-two year old students from a small university in Iowa viewed a thirty four second clip and answered questions about what was seen.


27 Give a Gift, Get a Hand: The Effects of Evoking Altruistic Behavior through Mood Altering. Michele Walton, Miranda Masloski, Kristin Bonamo, and Rebecca Martinez, University of Wisconsin-River Falls

This study relates the benefits of positive mood through a gift from a stranger and examines their altruistic behavior accordingly. Two separate groups were given one of two fictitious personal accounts of a student in need. One group received a gift and the other did not in order to illicit a positive or negative mood. Participants were randomly given an account of either a person performing an ethical or an unethical action and then getting hurt. Participants filled out a mood survey before and after the experiment manipulation and were to help the person in the account. Proposed results are that positive moods elicit altruistic behavior. The importance of these findings is to show evidence supporting how mood affects behavior.


28 Skip the Bar Scene, Head Online. Dorothea Graff and Molly Gust, University of St. Thomas

A convenient sample of University of St. Thomas students between the ages of 18 and 24 were given two questionnaires. One questionnaire was a scale that measured the participant's fear of negative evaluation. The other questionnaire presented a situation in which the participant reflected their attitudes about online dating. As the popularity of online matchmaking services increases, it is becoming more common for people to use the internet as a source of forming romantic relationships. Before analyzing the data we hypothesize that a higher fear of negative evaluation will lead to a more positive attitude towards online dating websites.


29 Student Adjustment to College: African Americans at a Private Predominantly White College. Arielle Butler, Buena Vista University

This study examines the adjustment levels of African Americans in college, specifically adjustment at a private predominantly Caucasian institution, compared to Caucasian students. The effect of previous interracial experience on adjustment was also examined. Participants were asked to provide demographic information including if they have had previous interracial experience in any type of relationship. Participants were also given the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire to measure adjustment. It is hypothesized that Caucasian students will have higher levels of adjustment than African American students, and that students with previous interracial experience will exhibit higher levels of adjustment.


30 Raising the Perfect(ionistic) Child: The Relationship between Types, Parental Authority, and Their Effect on Students' Type of Perfectionism. Liz Swabey-Keith, Joe Grundtner, and RJ Strand, University of St. Thomas

Fifty undergraduate students at the University of St. Thomas were given 3 surveys. One survey having to do with the type of authority of their father while they were growing up, one survey having to do with the type of authority of their mother while they were growing up, and one survey having to do with their perfectionism in the present. We measured the three types of parental authority (permissive, authoritarian, authoritative) given by each parent to the participants were growing up and looked at how that influenced the type of perfectionism (non-perfectionist, maladaptive perfectionist, adaptive perfectionist) in the participants now. The results of the study are discussed in detail.


31 Optimism's and Self-Esteem's Relationship with Procrastination. Sydney Solberg, College of Saint Benedict/St. John's University

This study's purpose was to investigate if self-esteem and optimism have a relationship with procrastination, to better aid teachers and employers in assisting those with procrastination problems. Researchers gave a one-shot, personal interview survey 118 of their college peers, 60 females and 58 males, which measured participant's levels of each variable through different tests. The results revealed a significant negative linear relationship between self-esteem and the level of procrastination, as well as a significant negative linear relationship between optimism and procrastination.




33 Teacher Locus of Control and Attitudes Towards "No Child Left Behind." Elyse Porter, Danielle Nelson, and Maya Brandl, University of St. Thomas



University of St. Thomas undergraduate students who had completed higher level courses in the School of Education were asked to participate in a study which investigated teacher locus of control and attitudes toward the federal educational policy "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Participants were given a packet that consisted of (a) a consent form, (b) a teacher locus of control scale (Rose & Medway, 1981), and (c) an instrument to measure attitudes toward NCLB. The researchers hypothesized that individuals with a higher internal teacher locus of control would have a more positive attitude toward NCLB. The results of the study are discussed in detail.


34 "I'm Sorry," Who to Ask for Forgiveness: The Relationship between Religiosity and Forgiveness. Jacob Forsman and Nikki Arola, University of St. Thomas

This study investigates the relationship between an individual's religiosity and their willingness to forgive. Participants, all of whom were undergraduate students at the University of St. Thomas, completed two questionnaires measuring their degree of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and their likelihood to forgive people in different forgiveness scenarios. Four groups were created based on their responses to the religiosity scales. It is predicted that the high intrinsic/high extrinsic group will have the highest forgiveness scores and that the high intrinsic/low extrinsic group will have higher forgiveness scores than the low intrinsic/high extrinsic group. A between-subject ANOVA was run in order to determine if there were any significant main effects for each of the five forgiveness scenarios. Results will be discussed.


35 Effects of Pattern of Morphine Exposure on the Development and Severity of Addiction. Angela Walker and Tory Shaaf, University of Minnesota

Drug addiction is a serious mental illness that negatively impacts many lives. The development of addiction occurs with the changing of a person's brain chemistry and architecture due to drug exposure. It has been seen in humans that patients who receive a continuous morphine drip are less likely to become addicted than a heroin abuser who uses the drug intermittently. Therefore, we examined the behavior of rats after either chronic or intermittent morphine exposure. We found that an intermittent pattern of morphine exposure potentiated the severity of withdrawal while also increasing the sensitivity of the brain reward system more than a chronic exposure pattern. Therefore, we hypothesize that recurrent episodes of acute withdrawal may be the aspect of intermittent drug exposure that is critical to the development of addiction. This may rewire the brain's stress and reward systems in a more harmful way than a continuous exposure would. Using our data, models that more accurately represent human drug use behavior can be constructed and the efficacy of new treatments can be better evaluated.


36 Effect of Stress on Eating Behaviors in College Students. Christine Esser, Augsburg College

Escape theory suggests that individuals may eat to escape from the negative experience of stress (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991). The present study tested the effect of stress on eating behaviors in college students. Sixty students (25 men and 35 women) were randomly placed into one of two groups: stress group or control group. When presented with snack foods, the stress group was expected to choose more of the unhealthy than the healthy snacks and more total snacks than the control group. Compared to the control group, the stress group reported a significant increase in the amount of stress from pre-task to task. Stress did not impact the eating behaviors as predicted. Possible explanations and limitations are discussed.


37 What Does a Feminist Look Like? The Search for an Accurate Definition of the Word 'Feminist.' Kelsey Crowder, Buena Vista University

There are many stereotypes about feminism and feminists. A common impression is that feminists are radical individuals who only care to foster the progress of females. On the contrary, true feminists want to foster progress for all minorities. This research looked at how today's college students respond to three different types of females (traditional stay at home mother, radical feminist, or an out of home working mother). Participants also completed the Feminist Identity Development Scale. It was predicted that those students who scored higher on the Feminist Identity Development Scale would rank positive adjectives higher for the radical feminist female in the story.


38 Reaction Times and Media Violence. Jodi Kerfeld and Paul Johnson, College of Saint Benedict/St. John's University

We searched to find a link between media violence and reaction times of words associated with media violence. A randomly assigned list of violent and non-violent words was presented, followed by a violent clip from the movie "Fight Club" or a non-violent clip from "Patch Adams." Participants were then tested on reaction time using a computer program that presented one word at a time, while participants were instructed to press the correct key designated for violent or non-violent words as rapidly as possible. Procedures were repeated with a second list of words and the video not previously viewed. We expect faster reaction times with the words associated with the viewed video.


39 Parental Closeness and Career Decision Self-Efficacy of College Students. Charlene Haapala, North Central University

This study explores the relationshsip between parental closeness and career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) in college students. 139 students completed the survey, and produced a small but statistically significant positive relationship between the two variables. Gender differences occurred and are discussed, along with implications of the findings.


40 Variables Associated with Spanking. Stephanie Slater, North Central University

While spanking is a controversial matter, 94% of chidlren in America are spanked between the ages of 3 and 4. We will look at the definition of spanking, and how the practice is related to age and gender of the child, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, age of parent, and geographical region. Survey results will be presented comparing responses between a secular university and a private religious university.


41 Acceptance and its Relationship to Emotion Regulation and Mental Health. Justin Ray Gauthier, Augsburg College

Acceptance appears to be a key factor in emotion regulation. However, the role of acceptance in emotion regulation has not been thoroughly studied. The present study examined the relationship between acceptance and emotion regulation strategies of suppression, cognitive reappraisal, rumination, and distraction, as well as to state negative affect and state anxiety. Eighty-five college students and staff members viewed a negative emotion eliciting film stimuli and completed self-report measures of acceptance, use of emotion regulation strategies, affect, and anxiety. Results indicate that acceptance was not significantly correlated to emotion regulation strategies. However, acceptance was inversely correlated to negative affect and anxiety. Results suggest acceptance may play a direct role as an emotion regulation strategy.


42 Adolescent Parents Enhancing Child Development. Eva Pesch, St. Olaf College

It is well-established that the quality of parent-child interactions is very influential to children's early language and cognitive development. In exploring this relationship, an important population to focus on is adolescent mothers and their children because children of adolescent mothers are at risk for negative developmental outcomes. The present study was conducted in cooperation with the Minneapolis Teenage Pregnant and Parenting Program (TAPPP). Videotaped interactions of 4 mother-child dyads were reviewed in a case study method, focusing on specific modes of communication and interaction. Enhanced interaction was observed in three out of the four dyads, which may be a result of the influence of the TAPP program. Further use of videotaped interactions as a teaching tool in the TAPP program is discussed.


43 Fairness in Police Lineups in Evanston, IL. Kassi Bloom, Augsburg College

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the fairness of police photo lineups conducted by the Evanston IL Police Department. The central question is whether the lineups included acceptably fair filler photos. A sample of 19 lineups is available, and approximately 50 research participants (who of course did not see the crime) will be provided with each witness's description of the perpetrator, will view the associated lineup, and then select the likely "accused" in each case. A mock-witness analysis will determine whether the lineup fillers effectively form a lineup that is unbiased against the suspect. Results will be reported at conference.


44 Family Conflict, College Stress, and Psychological Acculturation as Predictors of Distress and Well-Being in Latino College Students. Shantee Rosado, Macalester College

Research has found that acculturation undergone by Latinos in college has negative effects on their well-being. Studies also show family conflict is linked to high levels of distress among Latinos. This study examines whether well-being and distress among Latino students is better explained by family conflict or college stressors, while accounting for psychological acculturation. Surveys were administered to college students who identify as partially or completely Latino. Results show everyday stressors were better predictors of well-being and distress than family conflict among Latino college students, but only when these students were psychologically acculturated to both White and Latino cultures or solely to White cultures. Suggestions for college counselors and mental health providers are discussed.


45 Association between Self-Monitoring and Relationship Preference. Dan Wagner, Liz Schoenborn, Kyle Leske and Kendall Griffith, Hamline University

Previous research has demonstrated a positive correlation between self-monitoring and relationship preference (Snyder, Simpson and Gangestad, 1986) with individuals scoring high on the Self-Monitoring Scale having a greater preference for establishing an unrestricted orientation towards romantic relationships (e.g. initiating a romantic or sexual relationship with individuals whom they are not psychologically attached to). Consistent with the findings in previous research our present study found a significant positive correlation between high self-monitoring scores and preference for casual romantic relationships based on individuals scores on our relationship inventory. Participants (N = 64) who scored high on the Self-Monitoring Scale showed a preference for non-monogamous or casual relationships (p = .044).


46 Was There Really a "Womanless" Psychology? Lauren Bradel, University of St. Thomas

Since the 1970s, many feminists have described psychology as "womanless" prior to 1960, suggesting the absence of females as both researchers and subjects. Yet, recent historical research (Johnston & Johnson, 2008) questions that claim. To examine this issue, I developed a list of 452 women psychologists from the early and mid-20th century. Using PsychINFO, I located 400 empirical studies produced by women between 1901 and 1960, and 80 percent of these used female subjects. These findings, along with gender-based comparisons of publication rates, suggest that although the proportion of female publications was relatively small before 1960, women were producing original women-focused research at a significant rate, and this work tends to be overlooked in contemporary critiques of the field.


47 Language and Perceptual Sensitivity: Signal Detection Analysis of Lateralized Color Discrimination. Kameko Halfmann, St. Olaf College

Previous research has found that color categorical perception (better cross category than within category discrimination) is eliminated by verbal interference presented during the interstimulus interval of a discrimination task (Gilbert, Aubrey; Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Richard, Ivry; 2006). This suggests that categorical perception is mediated by verbal labels and as the Whorf hypothesis suggests, language influences perceptual processes. This current study uses a brain lateralization color category task in a signal detection design that allows us a strong test of the perceptual claim versus a post-perceptual claim. Our study replicated other studies; however, no evidence that language influences perceptual processes as opposed to cognitive processes was found.


48 The Impact of a Common Denominator Effect on Eyewitness Identification Accuracy. Allison Grams, Augsburg College

This study examines the impact on eyewitness identification accuracy of a Common Denominator across lineups: Each witness views two lineups that include the same innocent suspect. Participant-witnesses view a short crime video and are asked to identify the perpetrator from a 6-member lineup. Participants return to the lab two weeks later to view another lineup. We predict that a second viewing of the lineup will increase choosing rates and significantly increase false identifications of the innocent suspect. Prior conditions of this ongoing study have indicated that a Common Denominator Effect does exist over multiple viewings of simultaneous-format lineups; this study aims to determine precisely why the effect occurs.


49 Multiple Identification Attempts with Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups. Samantha Benson, Augsburg College

The study tests for a Common Denominator Effect: an increase in suspect identifications when eyewitnesses have seen the suspect in a previous lineup. Witness-participants viewed a videotaped crime and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a lineup. Two weeks later, witnesses were asked to identify the offender from a second lineup; the suspect was again present but fillers had changed. We predict that witness choosing rates will increase from a first to a second lineup and that when both lineups include the same innocent suspect, this repeated exposure will significantly increase false identifications. The Common Denominator Effect was found for false identifications in simultaneous lineups, although not at a statistically significant level (p =.08).


50 The Role of Authenticity in College Students' Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes. Amy S. Westmoreland and Camille Hutchens, University of St. Thomas

In this study, we examined the role of authenticity as it relates to implicit and explicit racial prejudice. Specifically, this study examined the concept of aversive racism. Aversive racists are defined as a group of individuals who claim to possess egalitarian non-prejudiced beliefs while simultaneously possessing unintentional and often unconscious biases. In other words, aversive racists are characterized as possessing low levels of explicit racial prejudice and high levels of implicit racial prejudice. The present study hypothesized that respondents who score low in explicit racial prejudice and high in authenticity would also score low in implicit racial prejudice. The researchers suggest that authenticity, or how well respondents know themselves, mediates the relationship between explicit and implicit racial prejudice. Conversely, respondents who score low in explicit racial prejudice and low in authenticity would likely score high in implicit racial prejudice reflecting the characteristics of aversive racists. The results of the study are discussed in detail.


51 It Seems Impossible to Imagine the World Without Me in It: The Effects of Parental Behavior on Their Child's Level of Selfism. Leigh Ann Thul, Megan Robb, and Briana Rynerson, University of St. Thomas

This study focused on the behavior of parents as a potential influence on the development of selfism in their children. Forty college-aged participants were given a packet of surveys each consisting of a parental authority scale, a parental control scale for each parent and a selfism scale. We hypothesized that parents with a permissive and/or authoritarian parenting style would positively correlate with their children's selfism score. We predicted that a higher score on the parental control scale would result in a higher score on the selfism scale. For both the parental control and parental style we believe students' scores for their mother will have a stronger correlation with the selfism score. The results of this study are discussed in detail.


52 It's Not You, It's Me: A Study on the Correlation between Personality and Divorce. Dana Taylor, Kenneth Knutson, and Tara Shmitz, University of St. Thomas

Forty-five college students participated in this study. Each participant was given four scales, including the Fear of Negative Evaluation, the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Osgood Differential scale on attitudes about divorce. Using the responses to these scales, we attempted to find a correlation between these factors and the participants' opinion towards divorce. The results of this study will be discussed in detail.


53 Cognitive Mindsets in a College Sample. Leigh Bartholomew, College of Saint Benedict/St. John's University



Individuals differ in educational beliefs about intelligence; some hold a fixed mindset believing that intelligence is permanently set, while others hold a growth mindset believing that intelligence is changeable through effort. We wanted to compare the performance of fixed and growth mindset individuals through a spatial reasoning task in high- or low-stress situations (manipulated by either presenting the task as an IQ test or a game). We hypothesized that fixed mindset individuals would perform poorly especially in the IQ situation due to the need to prove a high level of intelligence.


54 The Man Behind the Curtain: Experimenter Influence on a Memory Recall Task. Nikolai Golben, Macalester College


55 Rape Myth Acceptance among College Men: Attitudes about Women and Video Games Usage. Kayoua C. Vang, Macalester College

This study examined the relationship between playing violent video games, rape myth acceptance (RMA) and ambivalent sexism among college men. Previous research has shown that ambivalent sexism is strongly associated with RMA. Thus, as a general concern, active participation in violent and sexist video games may reinforce sexist beliefs, possibly leading to tolerance of and/or acts of violence against women in the real world. The relationship between level of sexism (high/low, measured by the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory), gamer status (gamer/non-gamer) and RMA scores was assessed in 33 college aged men. Gamers had significantly higher levels of rape myth acceptance than non-gamers. Thus, active participation in violent and sexist video games may lead to desensitization to violence, increased sexism and RMA.


56 Using Gain-Framed Messaging to Change Attitudes toward Menstruation and Menstrual Suppression. Katelyn Donisch, Carleton College

This study investigates the effect of gain-framed messaging on premenstrual distress and attitudes toward menstrual suppression. The theory of message framing asserts that the most effective means of promoting recuperative behaviors is achieved by presenting a message in a gain-framed manner. Participants were randomly assigned to either a gain-framed messaging or control group. The gain-framed messaging group was given a pamphlet that presented a gain-framed message regarding the adoption of positive menstrual attitudes to decrease premenstrual distress. The control group received identical materials without the gain-framed message. After the intervention, no differences were observed between the two message groups; however, women in both groups showed significant positive attitudinal and somatic outcomes, and did not support the practice of menstrual suppression.


57 Musical Tempos' Effect on Reading Comprehension. Carly Levin, Macalester College

Research supports that different features of music as well as different genres of reading materials can affect reading times and comprehension in different ways. In this study musical tempo was manipulated creating three musical conditions, fast, slow, and white noise. Both fast and slow narrative passages were presented along with music. The hypothesis was that fast tempos of music would increase reading speeds and comprehension as compared to a baseline, while slow music would decrease reading speeds and comprehension. Passage tempo was hypothesized to increase the effect such that fast tempo music and fast tempo passage would yield the highest reading speeds and comprehension and slow tempo music with slow tempo passage would yield the lowest reading speeds and comprehension.


58 Gender Differences in Self-Esteem and Optimism. Nicholas Latterell and Laura Sienko, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University

This study researched the difference in self-esteem and optimism across genders, with both expected to be higher in males. It also looked at the relationship between self-esteem and optimism. The participants were 112 students at a private university, who completed surveys in a one-shot design to gather information on self-esteem and optimism. Analysis of the data showed no significant mean difference in self-esteem or optimism between genders, though self-esteem and optimism were positively correlated. The non significant differences across these variables may be linked to the limited sample drawn from the population, or the age of the sample.



59 Job Satisfaction and Cultural Differences: A Look at Different Job Types among College Students. Mai Bao Xiong, Macalester College

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and different types of temporary work among collectivistic and individualistic college students. Using a college population has significant meaning in regards to job satisfaction because jobs accepted by college students are similar to post-college temporary jobs. The body of literature does not produce much research on college jobs and job satisfaction. The INDCOL was used to measure cultural differences and MSQ measured job satisfaction. An ANOVA showed no significant data to support differences among cultural differences, job types and job satisfaction. Limitations and suggestions of future in further discussed.


60 The Role of Support in Stereotype Threat. Kayla Richards, Macalester College




61 "I Should Win Soon," Responses to Wins and Near Wins Michael Wethington, Augsburg College

When participating in a computer gambling simulation, individuals with a history of gambling were more responsive than non-gamblers to changing stimulus probabilities of near wins and wins, apparently searching for patterns. Gamblers may decrease predictions of wins if no wins follow increasing near wins, however an occasional win can sustain a prediction rate higher than non-gamblers rates.